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MS. Buchanan f. 1

Book of Hours, in Dutch, mainly in the translation of Geert Grote
Northern Netherlands, Enkhuisen(?) 15th century, last quarter, after 1471



Physical description

Material Parchment.
Dimensions The leaves 159-60 x 116-8 mm., penwork decoration somewhat cropped, the outer borders of the inserted leaves considerably cropped.
Extent ii (paper, the first marbled) + 164 + ii (paper, the second marbled).
Foliation Foliated in modern pencil: i-ii, 1-166.
Collation Mostly on quires of 8 leaves, with miniatures on inserted single leaves: I (two singletons) (fols. 1-2), II6+1 (6th leaf a half-sheet, fol. 8) (fols. 3-9) | III8+1 (1st leaf inserted, fol. 10) (fols. 10-18), IV-V8 (fols. 19-33), VI8+1 (6th leaf inserted, fol. 39) (fols. 34-42), VII8 (fols. 43-50), VIII6 (fols. 51-56) | IX8+1 (1st leaf inserted, fol. 57) (fols. 57-65), X8 (fols. 66-73), XI8+1 (3rd leaf inserted, fol. 76) (fols. 74-82), XII8 (fols. 83-90) | XIII8 (fols. 91-98), XIV6 (fols. 99-104), XV8+1 (5th inserted, fol. 109) (fols. 105-113), XVI-XVII8 (fols. 114-129) | XVIII8+1 (1st leaf inserted, fol. 130) (fols. 130-138), XIX-XXI8 (fols. 139-162), XXII (two half sheets) (fols. 163-164); CATCHWORDS in the bottom gutter corner of most quires other than those at the end of a major textual unit; no quire/leaf signatures visible.
Ruling 22 lines ruled in pale brown ink, between single vertical bounding lines, usually so faint as to be almost invisible; the ruled space 95-6 x 65-6 mm.; prickings frequently visible in upper and lower margins, also occasionally at the fore-edge, e.g. fol. 162.
Script Written in gothic bookhand, with 21 lines of text per page; the written space c.93 x 65 mm.; the litany of saints written (but not ruled) in two columns.
Rubrication Headings, occasional paraphs and underlinings in red, capitals touched in red; guides for rubrics often visible, e.g. fols. 66r, 67r, 69r, etc.
Sec. fol. (Calendar) 'd Helena coninghinne', (text, fol. 12r) 'hoert sine stemme'.
Binding Sewn on five cords, with endbands; bound in 18th(?)-cent. mottled brown leather over pasteboards, the covers undecorated, the spine with five raised bands and dense gilt ornament in all six compartments; marbled endleaves; one green silk bookmark; the edges of the leaves red with some green speckling; the corners and upper joint rather worn.

Text

[Item 1 occupies quires I-II]

1. (fols. 1r-9v) Calendar, with an entry for every day, each month headed by a note on the length of the calendar month and lunar month in red; written continuously, such that two months occupy three pages; major feasts (in red) include: Pontianus (14 Jan.), Gertrude of Nivelles (17 Mar.), Servatius (13 May), Boniface (5 June), Odulph (12 June), Adalbert (25 June), Lambert (17 Sept.), Remi & Bavo (1 Oct.), Gereon & Victor (10 Oct.), Gummar (11 Oct.), 11,000 Virgins (21 Oct.), Willibrord (7 Nov.), Lebuin, and his translation (12 Nov., 25 June). The calendar has all the saints listed in Saenger, Newberry cat., 114 (Newberry MS. 61).

[Items 2-5 occupy quires III-VIII]

[fol. 10r blank, fol. 10v with a miniature]

2. (fols. 11r-38r, rubric on fol. 9v) Hours of the Virgin: 'Hier beghinnen onse vrouwe ghetiden' (pr. N. van Wijk, ed., Het Getijdenboek van Geert Grote: naar het Haagse Handschrift 133 E 21 (Leidsche Drukken en Herdrukken: Kleine Reeks, III: Leiden, 1940), 36-70, without the prologue on p. 36).

3. (fol. 38r-v) Prayer to the Guardian Angel: 'Tot dinen heilighen enghel. ghebet Heilighe enghel godes den ic beuolen bin ... verweerdighen moet mi te gheuen die vader die zoen ...', with a versicle and the collect: 'God ouermits wies godliker ... becuddinghe werde beschermet. ouermits ousen here ihesum christum. Amen'.

[fol. 39r blank, fol. 39v with a miniature]

4. (fols. 40r-56r, rubric on fol. 38v) Hours of Eternal Wisdom: 'Hier beghinnen die ewige wijsheit ghetiden' (pr. ibid., 92-112).

5. (fol. 56r-v) Prayers with indulgences:
(i) (fol. 56v, rubric on fol. 56r) 'Item sixtus die vierde [1471-84] heest ghegheuen alle die in penitencie ... .xim. iaer aflaets. ghebet Wes ghegruet alre heilichste maria moeder godes. coninghinne des hemels ... ende bidt voer mijn sonden. Amen' (as in Maria Meertens, De godsvrucht in de Nederlanden naar handschriften van gebedenboeken der XVe eeuw, I-III, VI [all published] (Leuvense Studieën en Tekstuitgaven: Brussels, 1930-4), VI, 94 item 7.a.);
(ii) (fol. 56v) 'Item soe wie na maeltijtspreket dit ghebet die verdient .xl. daghen aflaets God gheue den leuendighen gracie ende ontfarmherticheit ... ewighe leuen ende blijscap. Amen' (as in ibid., 96 item 22.a.; with the same rubric as the present manuscript).

[Items 6-8 occupy quires IX-XII]

[fol. 57r blank, fol. 57v with a miniature]

6. (fols. 58r-75v, rubric on fol. 56v) Long Hours of the Cross: 'Hier beghinnen die langhe cruus ghetiden' (pr. van Wijk, op. cit., 113-38), preceded by the prayer: 'O here ihesu christe des leuendighen godes ...' (pr. ibid., 113 n. 1).

[fol. 76r blank, fol. 76v with a miniature]

7. (fols. 77r-90r, rubric on fol. 75v) Hours of the Holy Ghost: 'Hier beghinnen die heilighe gheest ghetiden' (pr. ibid., 71-86).

8. (fol. 90r-v) Two indulgenced devotions to the Name of Christ:
(i) (fol. 90r-v) 'Item soe wie na dat in wat guets gedaen heest leset dit ghebet die verdienst xl. daghen aflaets Die soete naem ons heren ihesu christi ...' (as in Meertens, op. cit., VI, 94 item 7.d.);
(ii) (fol. 90v) 'Item soe wie wanneer hi die honichuloyname Ihesus ... verdient van paeus iohan xl. daghen aflaets ... O scepper alre creaturen du biste ontfarmhertich van naturen doer dine grondelose barmherticheit soe verghif mi here mine crancheit. ende ouermits iv heilighe vijf wonden soe verghif mi lieue here al mine sonden. Amen'.

9. (fols. 91r-108v, rubric on fol. 90v) Hours of All Saints: 'Hier beghinnen alle heilighen ghetiden' (cf. R.-A. Parmentier, 'Een vijftiendeeuwsch getijdenboek uit het voormalig bisdom Utrecht (Handschrift van Zuylen)', Annales de la Société d'émulation de Bruges 76 (1934), 95-136, at 108-12).

[fol. 109r blank, fol. 109v with a miniature]

10. (fols. 110r-116v, rubric on fol. 108v) The Seven Penitential Psalms: 'Hier beghinnen die seuen psalmen' (pr. van Wijk, op. cit., 139-45).

11. (fols. 116v-123v) Litany and collects; the litany substantially as pr. in ibid., 145-50; among the differences are the inclusion of Valerianus, 'Panciaes', Ivo, Poncianus, Bavo, 'Geliis', Gummar, Alexius, Spes, Barbara, Martha, Justina, and Juliana, and the omission of Pancras and Brice; followed (fols. 122v-123v) by three collects:
(i) 'Wi bidden di here verhore die bede ...' (pr. ibid., 153);
(ii) 'Onutfarme [sic] di onser here ontfarme di onser barmliker ...' (pr. ibid., 153-4 line 4);
(iii) 'Verlosse ons vanden dode totten leuen ...' (pr. ibid., 154 ll.4-25; i.e. the long collect in van Wijk is divided in the present manuscript by a one-line red initial and the rubric 'collect').

12. (fols. 124r-129v, rubric on fol. 123v) Hours of the Cross: 'Hier beghinnen die corte cruus ghetiden' (pr. ibid., 87-91); followed (fols. 127v-129v) by a Cross-related prayer and indulgenced devotions:
(i) (fol. 127v) 'Tot sinte andries Doe sinte andries quam totter stede daer dat cruce bereit was ... o heilighe cruus ... in die ghehanghen heest', with versicle and the collect: 'O here wi bidden di seer ynnichlike ende deuotelike ... lieuer brienden ziclen. Amen' (as in Meertens, op. cit., VI, 95 item 19.b.);
(ii) (fol. 128r-v) a version of the Seven Prayers of St. Gregory: 'Dic dese seuen ghebedekijn leset mit .vij. pater noster ende aue maria al knielende voer die wapenen ons heren die verdient .xlvim. iaer. ende xl. daghen aflaets O here ihesu christe ic aenbede di hanghende anden cruce. ende op dijn hoest draghende ... wes ghenadich mijn ziele in haer intuaert' (cf. Meertens, op. cit., II, 86-7);
(iii) (fol. 128v-129v) Gospel Pericope from John, followed by two rubrics detailing indulgences of Clement V: 'Item soe wie sinte ians ewangeli Inden beghinne hoert of leset ... die verdient van paeus clemens die vijste een iaer. ende xl. daghen aflaets', and 'Item soe wie onser vrouwen lof sanc leset in latijn of in duytsche. dat is Magnificat die verdient elkes daghes .xxxiij. iaer aflaets ende alsoe vele weken'.

[Items 13-16 occupy quires XVIII-XXII]

[fol. 130r blank, fol. 130v with a miniature]

13. (fols. 131r-158v, rubric on fol. 129v) Office of the Dead: 'Hier beghint die vigeli. Invitatorium' (pr. van Wijk, op. cit., 156-95 n. 10; i.e. beginning on the second page of the printed text, and omitting the end of the last pr. collect); with (fol. 158r-v) an extra collect at the end: 'Ontfarmhertighe ende almachtighe vader wi bidden ontfarme der zielen dinen ... alle dinen heilighen van ewen tot ewen sonder eynde Amen Here ghif here die ewighe rust ende dat ewighe licht moet here licht Si moeten rusten in breden Amen'.

14. (fols. 158v-162r) Prayers before communion: 'Alsmen ten heilighen sacramente gaen willen les dit':
(i) (fols. 158v-159v) 'Wes ghegruet o alre heilichste lichaem ons heren onthouden inden heilighen sacramente ... lesten een salich wtgans moet ghegheuen werden Amen' (cf. Meertens, op. cit., III, 63-4);
(ii) (fols. 159v-160v) 'O leuende vrucht du suete gheminde paradijs. du suete dropel ... openbaerliken sien moghen inder ewigher saliche Amen' (cf. Meertens, op. cit., III, 61; VI, 110 item 31.d.);
(iii) (fols. 160v-161v) 'O here der enghelen glorie ic arme sondighe ... in dien name daer di ontfenc dijn ghebenedide moeder maria Amen' (cf. Meertens, op. cit., III, 51-52);
(iv) (fols. 161v-162r) 'O almachtighe ende ghenadighe god ic onwaerde sondighe mensche ... moet daer di die enghen louen ende eren Amen'.

15. (fols. 162r-v) Prayer during communion: 'Alstu dat sacrament ontfanges les dit Heer ic en bins niet waerdich dattu comest onder mijn dac ... alle eertsche minne veronweerdighet' (cf. Meertens, op. cit., VI, 160 item 6.c.).

16. (fols. 162v-164v) Prayers after communion: 'Nader ontfanghenisse les dit':
(i) (fols. 162v-163r) 'Danc segghe ic di o almachtighe god dattu mi onwaerde ... werscappe der ewigher vrouden ende bliiscap Amen';
(ii) (fol. 163r-v) 'O here ihesu christe die alle tijt voer onsen sculden wordes gheoffert ...' (pr. Meertens, op. cit., III, 88);
(iii) (fols. 163v-164r) 'Ic bidde dij lieue ghenadighe here dat dese ontfanghenisse ... ende leues ende reguiers van ewen tot ewen Amen';
(iv) (fol. 164r) 'O here ihesu christe lof si dijnre onsprekeliker minnentliker goedertierenheit ... ghecomen der heilighen heilicheit Amen' (pr. ibid., 89 ll.18-25);
(v) (fol. 164r-v) 'Item die dit ghebet leset alsmen dat heilighe sacrament op boert die verdient .ccc. daghen aflaets Wes ghegruet waerachtich lichaem gheboren vander ioncfrouwe marien ...' (as in Meertens, op. cit., VI, 76 item 18.b.);
(vi) (fol. 164v) 'Tot onse here ghebet Gods ziel heilighe mi. Gods lichaem behoede mi. Gods bloet drinke mi ... mitten enghelen ewelike. Amen' (cf. Meertens, op. cit., III, 31).

Decoration

Six very fine full-page miniatures, each with an arched top, taller than the ruled text area (122-30 mm. high including the arched top, but not the framing), framed by blue and gold lines (pink and gold on fols. 39v, 57v) and a full painted border of stylized foliage, with birds, animals, and grotesques, etc., framed by a double gold fillet (where not cropped), the interstices filled with small gold dots (a similar border is illustrated in colour in the frontispiece to the Sotheby's catalogue referred to below); on single leaves of thicker parchment than the rest, blank on the recto, cropped especially severely at top and bottom, inserted into the manuscript (see also under Provenance):

The miniatures have been attributed to the Bezborodko Master(s), who also painted Amsterdam, Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica (J.R. Ritman Library) MS. BPH 2 (dated 1491); Antwerp, Museum Plantin-Moretus, MS. 14.7 (dated 1489); Bloomington, Ind., Indiana University, Lilly Library, MS. Ricketts 133 (dated 1491); and The Hague, Koninklijk Bibliotheek, 135 E 45 (dated 1490; this is the eponymous manuscript, named after a former owner, sold at Sotheby's, 11 December 1979, lot 50.)

Seven mostly ten-line initials (nine-line on fols. 110r, 131r) opposite the miniatures, and also at fol. 91r: each composed of a 'puzzle' initial in red and blue pigments, containing, and surrounded by, penwork in red and blue inks, with green and pale yellow washes, usually in all four margins; three-line initials in blue with red penwork and green wash touches at the start of each hour from Lauds to Compline; plain two-line initials alternately in red or blue, at psalms, hymns, lessons, the KL monograms in the calendar, etc.; plain one-line initials alternately in red or blue, at verses and other minor divisions.

Hülsemann, in 'Sets of codicological characteristics', states that the penwork decoration in a group of eight manuscripts, all probably from Enkhuisen or the surrounding area, was probably supplied by two hands (she illustrates each in her figs. 6 and 9).

Images of some miniatures and penwork initials are available online.

Note
It is possible that the miniatures were added to the volume at some time after it was first written, but if they did originally belong in the present volume, they are likely to have been included when the book was bound for the first time, and therefore of approximately the same date; other manuscripts with miniatures attributed to the same artist are dated 1489, 1490, 1490, and 1491 (see Broekhuijsen, 'The Bezborodko Masters') suggesting a date in the 1480s or 1490s for the present manuscript. The great difference in the size of the miniatures and the text space, however, combined with the fact that the miniatures are bound in on paper guards of uncertain date, makes the original relationship between the miniatures and text somewhat uncertain.

To complicate matters further, each leaf with a miniature has evidence to suggest that it was not always bound into the volume: most have deposits of paste at the top and bottom of their recto, and most have one or both of two types of pin-hole, either (i) at or very close to the upper edge of the leaf, i.e. before trimming; or (ii) somewhat lower (sometimes within the area of the miniature) and often showing a rust stain. This suggests that the leaves (a) were at some stage pasted to a surface, (b) were at some stage pinned to a surface (presumably wooden), and at some subsequent time, after the edges of the leaves were cropped, (c) were again pinned to a surface with ferrous tacks, before (d) they were eventually re-inserted in the manuscript.

Addendum (12 April 2000). Since the above paragraphs were written, Dr. Anne Korteweg of the Royal Library, The Hague, has kindly informed me that the miniatures certainly did not belong in the present manuscript when it was originally written: the manuscript should be dated c. 1470-80, and the miniatures c. 1490.

Provenance

1. Written at or for Enkhuizen(?), as suggested by the calendar and litany, after 1471 (the date of the election of Pope Sixtus IV, who is mentioned on fol. 56r.) See also the Note under Decoration.

2. Unidentified, presumably post-medieval, owner(s): the characteristic Enkhuizen feasts in red in the calendar were marked by a group of three black dots arranged in a triangle; for reasons now obscure, in the 18th/19th(?) cent. the numbers '132', '131', and '134' were written against the entries for Eulalia, Gabinius, and Romanus (13 [recte 12], 19, and 28 Feb., respectively), with a letter 'H'(?) immediately after Romanus's name, and 'I _P RCO'(??) in the lower margin (fol. 2r), perhaps just a pen-trial.

3. Unidentified 19th-cent. owner(s): inscribed in pencil 'No 1' towards the upper left corner of fol. i verso; to the left of this a circular label has been removed.

4. John Buchanan: inscribed in pencil with the 'Descriptive list' number, '15.', in the top left corner of fol. i verso.

5. Rt. Hon. T. R. Buchanan (1846-1911); given to the Bodleian by his widow, Mrs. E. O. Buchanan, in 1939, when it was accessioned as MS. Dutch f. 1; re-referenced as MS. Buchanan f. 1 in 1941.

Bibliography

Library descriptions

Otto Pächt and J. J. G. Alexander, Illuminated manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 1: German, Dutch, Flemish, French and Spanish schools (Oxford, 1966, repr. with corrections, 1969), no. 245, pl. XVII (fol. 76v).

Other bibliography

'Fifteen illuminated Horae', Bodleian Library Record 1 no. 7 (1939), 115-6, at 116 (as MS. Dutch f. 1).

Mentioned, but not described, in S. J. P. van Dijk, Handlist of the Latin liturgical manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, IV [Books of Hours] (Unpublished typescript, Oxford, 1959), 309

Friedrich Gorissen, Das Stundenbuch der Katharina von Kleve: Analyse und Kommentar (Berlin, 1973), 802 (cited as 'Buch. 245', i.e. the no. in Pächt & Alexander).

Sotheby, Parke Bernet & Co., Catalogue of western manuscripts and miniatures ... which will be sold by auction ... 11th December 1979 (London), mentioned at p. 56, under lot 50.

Martin Breslauer, Books, MSS. & autographs selected for exhibition at the 9th International Antiquarian Book Fair, October 2-4, 1980 (New York), mentioned under item 1.

A. S. Korteweg and C. A. Chavannes-Mazel, Schatten van de Koninklijke Bibliotheek: acht eeuwen verluchte handschriften (The Hague, 1980), 193; and, Treaures of the Royal Library, The Hague [translation by H. S. Lake of the former into English] (The Hague, 1980), 104.

Avril Henry, ed., Biblia Pauperum: a facsimile and edition (Aldershot, 1987), 147 n. 2.

James H. Marrow, Henri L. M. Defoer, Anne S. Korteweg, and Wilhelmina C. M. Wüstefeld, The golden age of Dutch manuscript painting (New York, 1990), 290.

A. S. Korteweg and K. H. Broekhuijsen, 'Twee boekverluchters uit de Noordelijke Nederlanden in Duitsland: een Zwarte-ogen-meester, Johannes Ruysch en het Graduale van de abdij Gross St. Martin te Keulen uit het jaar 1500', in Annus quadriga mundi: opstellen over middeleeuwse kunst opgedragen aan Prof. Dr. Anna C. Esmeijer ed. J. B. Bedaux and A. M. Koldeweij (Clavis Kunsthistorische Monografieën, 8: Zutphen, 1989), 49-76, at 66.

Klara Broekhuijsen, 'The Bezborodko Masters and the use of prints', in Masters and miniatures: proceedings of the Congress on Medieval Manuscript Illumination in the Northern Netherlands (Utrecht, 10-13 December 1989) ed. Koert Van Der Horst and Johann-Christian Klamt (Studies and Facsimiles of Netherlandish Illuminated Manuscripts, 3: Doornspijk, 1991), 403-12, at 403 nn. 4, 6.

Klara Broekhuijsen, De Zwarte-Ogen-Meesters: een onderzoek naar de stijl en iconografie van een groep Noordnederalndse miniaturisten rond 1500, unpublished disseration, Universiteit van Amsterdam (1997), 21-3, 101. [Not consulted.]

Margriet Hülsmann, 'Sets of codicological characteristics and their overlapping areas: various aspects of book production', in Sources for the history of medieval books and libraries, ed. Rita Schulsemann, Jos M. M. Hermans, and Margriet Hoogvliet (Boekhistorische reeks, 2: Groningen, 1999), 257-70, at 264 n. 9.


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