(January 1996 - August 1998)

A project in the eLib programme


March 1999





This report describes an eLib project to provide internet access to substantial (21, 20 or 10 year) runs of three 18th-century and three 19th-century journals, with the objective of improving access to the holdings of research libraries. Four of the titles were digitised from bound volumes using a Minolta PS3000 open-book cradle scanner. Two titles were digitised from pre-existing microfilm copies using Mekel equipment with grey scale facilities. Indexes to two titles were created by the use of uncorrected Optical Character Recognition (OCR). Indexes to four titles were provided by keyboarding volume or cumulated indexes published at the same time as the journals. For one title, Blackwood’s, the electronic tables of contents from Chadwyck-Healey’s Periodicals Contents Index was used.

An SGML-based file structure was developed for use with metadata. Images and indexes were mounted on servers at Oxford, using the PAT (Opentext) search engine, and at Leeds using EFS which offered fuzzy search capability. User responses to the service were evaluated by means of questionnaire survey. Issues relating to digitisation, OCRing, metadata and the user interface are discussed and a series of recommendation made. Possible strategies for the continued provision of the service are outlined.


A : Introduction


1. The Internet Library of Early Journals (ILEJ) project was funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) as part of the first phase of the Electronic Libraries (eLib) programme. The project was a consortium undertaking of the research libraries of the Universities of Birmingham, Leeds, Manchester and Oxford. All are members of the Consortium of University Research Libraries (CURL) and the Research Libraries Group (RLG).

2. The project sought to enhance access to holdings of research libraries by creating electronic copies of print and microfilm holdings which could be accessed via the Internet. The specific objective was to create and to provide user access to a corpus of digitised images from three 18th-century and three 19th-century journals. The runs of each journal would be of sufficient size (a minimum of 20 consecutive years) to provide a critical mass of material as perceived by the user. The project was therefore multi-purpose, seeking to investigate the following issues:

The Journals

3. The material to be imaged was agreed before the start of the project. The six titles were chosen according to a set of inter-related criteria to create a critical mass of material which could be considered to be broadly representative of pre-1900 journals as a whole and would test a range of technological variables. These criteria included:

4. The titles, run lengths and sources chosen were:

Notes and Queries (1849-69): from bound volumes at Manchester

Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine (1843-63): from bound volumes at Birmingham

The Builder (1843-62): from a copy of a microfilm supplied by Manchester Public Libraries

Gentleman's Magazine (1731-1830): from a copy of a microfilm created by Cambridge University Library as part of the Mellon microfilming project.

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (1757-77): from bound volumes at Manchester

Annual Register (1758-78): from bound volumes at Birmingham

A more detailed description of the six titles appears in Appendix I. Illustrated London News was flagged as an additional title, if resources allowed. Its large size pages and prevalence of illustrations would have further extended the variables to be explored in the project. In the event, no action was taken with this title.

5. Bound volume scanning made use of volumes held on the site where scanning took place, with the exception that occasional volumes were supplied by one of the other sites or another library to replace a missing or poor-quality volume. Before scanning, the run of each journal was sized, checked for missing or poor quality volumes or issues, and pagination characteristics were identified. All microfilm scanning took place at Oxford.

Image Creation

6. Minolta PS3000 open-book cradle scanners were selected for scanning of bound volumes and located at Manchester and Birmingham. A Mekel MX500XLG was chosen for scanning of microfilms and located at Oxford. Installation of both types of scanner was delayed by the unavailability of grey scales, which were still not available for the Minolta at the end of the project.

7. Image processing, involving cropping, deskewing and compression for display purposes, and OCRing (for two titles only) was undertaken at Leeds and Oxford. A metadata structure, which conformed to agreed standards, was established to provide each image with a unique identifier linked to the paper original and to the indexes. Images were transferred among the four sites by ftp. The images were stored on the hierarchical file server (HFS) at Oxford.


8. User access was central to the project. This required the provision of: distributed Internet access; retrieval and browse facilities; and legible display. Effective indexing for retrieval was a key element and ILEJ explored two methods:

9. The advent of a Web version of the Excalibur EFS software, combined with the increasing dominance and universality of the Web and Web browsers, resulted in abandonment of the use of X-Windows at an early stage. Web servers were mounted at Leeds and Oxford using EFS (with fuzzy matching capability) and PAT respectively. Access was via the Oxford server for which a user interface was developed with transparent links to Leeds. The Web site at Oxford was also used to advertise the project.

10. In the final three months of the project a user evaluation was conducted by questionnaire survey and telephone interview.

Management and Staffing

11. The project was managed by Joint Project Leaders at Leeds and Oxford and a Project Executive comprising two members from each site who contributed to and supervised the work on that site, plus the project officers appointed at Leeds and Oxford. Project officers were full-time staff who were shared with other projects and activities at the site with an average of 50% of their time paid by and assigned to ILEJ. Scanner operators were appointed for varying periods at Manchester, Birmingham and Oxford. The list of all staff in the project appears in Appendix II.

12. The main activities at each site were:

Birmingham - bound volume scanning

Leeds - image processing and OCR, server with EFS, evaluation

Manchester - bound volume scanning, some image processing

Oxford - microfilm scanning, server with PAT, image processing and OCR, keyboarded indexes, archiving.


13. Appendix III outlines the methods of dissemination of information about the project through email lists, paper mailings and journal articles, newsletters and conference papers.


14. This was originally a two-year project starting 1st January 1996. Because of delays in installing scanning equipment it was extended for a further 8 months until 31st August 1998 within the same funding. Key dates were:

Feb 1996 : Web site established at Oxford for internal project use

June 1996 : Minolta PS3000 scanners installed in Manchester and Birmingham (para. 15)

Nov. 1996 : Operational scanning started in Manchester

March 1997 : First volume of Notes and Queries mounted on Web site

April 1997 : Mekel (microfilm) scanner installed in Oxford

May 1997 : Operational scanning of Blackwood’s started in Birmingham (completed November 1997)

Aug. 1997 : Operational scanning of Philosophical Transactions started at Manchester (completed December 1997)

Aug. 1997 : First images (10 volumes of Notes and Queries) made available for user access.

Oct. 1997 : Operational scanning of Gentleman's Magazine microfilm, started in Oxford (completed April 1998)

Dec. 1997 : Operational scanning of Annual Register started at Birmingham (completed March 1998)

Feb. 1998 : Remainder of Notes and Queries (20 volumes in all) made available for user access.

April 1998 : Operational scanning of The Builder started at Oxford (10 volumes completed by August 1998)

March - Aug. 1998 : Other titles mounted on Oxford server with indexes

June 1998 : User evaluation


B : Image Creation and Processing

Paper Scanning

15. Scanning was undertaken at Manchester and Birmingham using the Minolta PS3000P open-book cradle scanner. Minolta equipment had been selected prior to the beginning of the project on the understanding that it could provide 256 grey-scale capability. The supply of this equipment was delayed and when it was installed it became clear that it provided only dithered bi-tonal, not grey-scales. There were further delays while the provision of greyscales was discussed with Minolta. It was eventually decided to accept equipment without greyscales and to proceed with bi-tonal scanning. As a result of these delays operational scanning started 7 months later than originally planned. Minolta undertook to upgrade the scanners to grey-scales (which would require additional hardware) when these became available but this did not occur during the lifetime of the project and consequently all images are bi-tonal. Operational scanning procedures were first developed at Manchester before starting scanning at Birmingham.

16. The criteria of image quality were "fitness for purpose" with respect to:

OCR quality was the most rigorous of these criteria though only applicable to the two titles for which OCR was used. Quality control for these two titles therefore had to take into account a measure (OCR quality) which could only be observed several stages down the production line from the initial scanning and usually at another site.

17. Much effort was devoted to developing scanning procedures in order to maximise image quality as defined above. A variety of problems were encountered in scanning from bound volumes. The curvature of the bound volume, combined with the buckling of paper, caused shadowing from the scanner's remote light source. Pages would distort and skew on the camera cradle especially at the beginning and end of volumes. Focusing had to be adjusted to take account of changes in page height at different points in the volume. Tightness of binding was a major determinant of the ease of scanning and the quality of output. Other factors that had to be accommodated by scanning procedures were variations in type density, see-through and varying margins (a narrow margin would accentuate the effect of tight binding).

18. The development of production procedures required a long learning curve. Frequent changes of parameter settings and scanner geometry were necessary to provide an acceptable product. Experience with one volume or one title could not automatically be applied to the next. Techniques developed included the use of a white card behind the page to be scanned and the scanning of single pages instead of a double page spread. All (say) right-hand pages would be scanned to the end of a volume, then all left-hand pages. A more detailed description of the scanning process appears in Appendix IV.

19. Though an acceptable product was obtained, this was heavily dependent on high levels of operator skill, judgement and patience. A higher quality product would undoubtedly have resulted from the use of a flatbed scanner with pages from dismembered volumes.

20. During the second year of the project the more sophisticated Zeutschel Omniscan 5000 equipment was purchased for use by the Higher Education Digitisation Service (HEDS) at Hatfield. Our assessment of the Zeutschel equipment was that it offered a much higher level of operator assistance including a glass plate against which the bound volume is pressed. Comparative tests with the same volumes were not undertaken but this equipment would be expected to provide higher quality images and a higher throughput because of greater ease of operation.


21. Images for all four titles were scanned at 400dpi bi-tonal, the maximum resolution and colour depth available. However, the application of Cornell benchmarking (1) methods to the original material showed that this resolution was not high enough to give dependable capture of the small fonts which appear in parts of some titles, e.g. advertisements in Notes and Queries.


22. The rate of scanning varied with the degree of difficulty experienced with the bound volumes. For example, for reasons already explained (para. 17) pages at the beginning and end of volumes would commonly take longer to scan then those at the centre. The average scanning rate was around 90 page images per hour, more than three times the rate assumed in the original ILEJ proposal, with extremes of 50 and 140. Appendix IV shows throughput data for individual volumes of Notes and Queries. These throughput figures do not include the time taken by the scanner operator to enter low-level metadata (page number runs and issue start points) into an Excel spreadsheet (para. 47). The complete cycle for an 800-page volume including scanning, entering metadata and FTPing required two operator working days and optimum conditions.

Processing of Images

23. The 400dpi tiff produced by the open book scanner required processing for two distinct purposes:

24. For display purposes the tiff images were converted to 120dpi gif images for delivery to a Web browser, thereby removing the need for the use of browser plug-ins. This had the additional advantage of reducing file size. The resolution of the compressed images varied between 120 and 200 dpi for different titles in order to accommodate viewing of different page and font sizes on 800 x 600 pixel screens. ImageMagick was used initially for this process but the conversion process for a 650-page volume could take up to 24 hours (on a SPARC 5), an unacceptable production bottleneck. It was therefore superseded by Image Alchemy which reduced conversion time to c. 4 hours per volume.

25. As a prelude to OCRing, Sequoia Scanfix was used to deskew, despeckle and crop the tiff images. Considerable care was necessary in defining Scanfix parameters as a setting that cleanses an unsightly blotch from one page could remove a plate from another. Parameters therefore had to be authenticated for each title using a large, representative sample of pages.

Optical Character Recognition (OCR)

26. OCR has the potential to be a low-cost method of producing high-value indexes which are of particular value for "newsy" publications such as Notes and Queries which are item-based and rich in anecdotal information. OCRing of 19th- and (especially) 18th-century journals is recognised as problematic because of the quality, variability, idiosyncrasies and size of typefaces, and the quality of the paper originals. For display purposes OCR quality in the region of 99.95% or higher is required. For index use, the quality requirement is much lower. Low quality (85-99%) OCR can offer a greater depth of indexing than conventional indexes or contents pages, though the high error rate does introduce inconsistencies in retrieval. As with any full-text search facility, the penalty for high recall is likely to be reduced precision. The low quality of the OCR may be reduced by the use of fuzzy matching software offered by the EFS search engine, and by the redundancies of full-text searching, e.g. if Nelson appears once on a page it may appear several times.

Choice of Software

27. An OCR package integrated with the EFS software is available but, after preliminary tests, OmniPage Pro was preferred. Version 6 with Windows 3.1 was used initially but was subsequently upgraded to Version 8 running under NT. The OmniPage OCR engine, coupled with dictionary look-up, is a powerful tool for English text with modern typefaces. Inevitably it performed less well with images from bound volumes of 18th- and 19th-century type faces which included passages in French and Latin, and portions in extremely small typefaces. The training facilities provided with the software did not produce significant improvement in recognition of archaic characters and typefaces, nor did the use of prescribed page zone specification and limiting character sets. A more detailed description of the OCR process appears in Appendix IV.

Choice of Titles

28. At an early stage in the project all six titles were tested for suitability for OCR in small-scale pilots using a flat bed scanner offering up to 300dpi and 16 or 256 grey scale. On the basis of these trials it was concluded that the three 19th-century journals could give satisfactory OCR results with bi-tonal scanning. Use of grey scales could produce significant improvements in OCR quality especially with pages exhibiting show-through, though at the expense of much larger file sizes. The three 18th-century journals with heavy show-through and high variability in typeface quality were unlikely to give satisfactory OCR, particularly with bi-tonal scanning.

29. OCR quality was subsequently tested for all six titles with:

As a result of these tests, we concluded that the OCR output on Notes and Queries and Blackwood's was of acceptable quality and both were OCR'd in entirety. The other four titles gave results of varying levels of unacceptability. Philosophical Transactions was the next most acceptable and might merit further investigation. Failure to OCR The Builder was the most disappointing result. In earlier tests with a flat bed scanner it had given the best results of any title. This was attributable to the quality of the microfilm copy and the small print size. Gentleman's Magazine gave the least acceptable results.

30. Apart from the OCR samples from images on a flat bed scanner at the beginning of the project (para. 28), no comparative studies were undertaken of OCR quality from images of the same page obtained by different imaging techniques. However, there are a number of possible strategies that could be used to improve OCR quality though whether these would have rendered the other four titles OCRable remains uncertain. These strategies are outlined in the recommendations in para. 108.

Measurement of OCR accuracy

31. At the error rates being observed in this project even a casual glance would distinguish a good page from a bad one but quantification is difficult. Macros were written to match words against a Microsoft dictionary but this is not meaningful in relation to proper nouns (frequent in some titles), foreign text and the use of dictionary look-up by OmniPage which can result in the substitution of the wrong word, e.g. night instead of right. A character-by-character match is the ideal method and, in effect, would be used with high quality OCR intended for display purposes where the text would be read for sense and matched against a dictionary to identify any problem word which would then be assessed manually and corrected if necessary. This is a labour intensive process that is impracticable with high error rate "index-quality" OCR. In ILEJ, quantitative measures of accuracy were based on sample pages by manually matching of characters against the paper original. These showed wide variations within a title and between titles. An average Blackwood's page exhibited 98.5% accuracy and a poor Notes and Queries page could be below 80%. For both titles some very good pages exhibited an accuracy of greater than 99%.


32. With OmniPage Version 6 on a Pentium 90 with 64 Mb RAM a problem-free 650-page volume would take 12.5 hours to process. The software offered limited processing facilities: only 256 files (images) could be batched in one run and poor error recovery resulted in batch failures, which reduced the efficacy of overnight running. The upgrade to Version 8 (and NT) improved OCR quality and, by removing the 256 limit, the overall throughput. With either version of the software processing speed was very processor dependent. A Pentium 233 achieved five times the throughput of the Pentium 90 (both with 64 Mb of RAM).

Microfilm Scanning

33. A Mekel MX500XL-G scanner, with full greyscale facilities, was delivered in April 1997 and was used for creating images from microfilm copies (positive) of two titles:

34. Both the microfilms used for image creation are (positive) copies of originals produced by the scanning of bound volumes. Both therefore reproduced the characteristics of bound volumes encountered with the open book scanner: page curvature, page wrinkling, see-through and variable density, in addition to some microfilm-specific problems (see below). As OCR was not being used (cf. para. 29) and aesthetic appearance, especially page curvature, was pre-determined by the microfilm copy, the only quality criterion under our control was legibility. Use of greyscales to improve legibility had therefore to be balanced against greatly increased file size and reduced throughput.

35. There had been some expectation that the combination of fixed geometry and a pre-existing optical image would provide for a smooth workflow with no need to change parameters. In practice, as had been found with paper scanning, variations in parameter settings were necessary for different frames, different volumes and (especially) between titles. Procedures had to be developed to deal with variations in the contrast levels within a frame, "false edges" caused in many frames by the binding of the original volume being visible and disrupting the edge detection procedure used by the scanner. The two microfilm products displayed very different scanning characteristics. A long learning curve and a high level of operator skill were therefore required. In contrast to paper scanning, in which image processing was divorced from scanning and carried out remotely, Mekel software provided the facility for automatic cropping of images. As it was scanned, the image was cropped to dimensions defined by halving the width of the original image. This procedure did not work where the two halves of a frame were of markedly unequal size (again a function of the open-book original). Operator intervention was then necessary and cropping was undertaken with Adobe Photoshop. In practice the Mekel cropping facility was used for almost all frames in The Builder microfilm but none of those in the Gentleman's Magazine microfilm.

36. Scanning at 300 dpi bi-tonal gave acceptably legible images for 66% of frames of the Gentleman's Magazine microfilm but 34%, clustered in specific volumes, required the use of 100 dpi with 256-level greyscale.

37. Because of the large size of the original pages and the small font, all images of The Builder were scanned at 200 dpi with 256 greyscales, producing file sizes of 10 megabytes. The large file size resulted in extended cropping time and disk space bottlenecks on the Mekel. The scanning and cropping therefore had to take place in batches of 50 images. This problem was partly alleviated by a change in the scanning procedure. The microfilm was scanned twice, the first time for the verso sides and the second for the rectos to produce ready-cropped images in each case.

38. The cropped bi-tonal images were converted to gif files and the greyscale images to medium quality jpegs, using Image Alchemy (para. 24).


39. The original ILEJ proposal assumed a throughput of 250 pages an hour, ten times that for paper scanning, and the manufacturer’s specification gave a throughput of 600 pages per hour at 200 dpi grey scale, and much higher in bi-tonal mode. Observed throughputs were well below these values though, as explained above (paras. 35, 37) the reasons for decreased output were different for each microfilm. Under optimum conditions, with no requirement for parameter changes, a rate of 200 images (100 frames) per hour could be achieved but average throughputs were 40 images per hour for The Builder (including automatic cropping) and 70 per hour for the Gentleman’s Magazine (excluding cropping).


C : Conversion of Printed Indexes

40. Two types of index were created for image retrieval:

The following indexes and tables of contents were made available to users:

Notes and Queries: subject index, taken from the original printed indexes to each volume

Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine: author and title indexes, compiled from the tables of contents information in Chadwyck-Healey’s Periodical Contents Index.

Gentleman’s Magazine: subject index, taken from the cumulated index for volumes 1-20.

Philosophical Transactions: author, title and subject indexes, compiled from the tables of contents and subject indexes in the original printed volumes.

Annual Register: subject index, taken from the original printed cumulated index.

The Builder: none

41. After initial experiments with in-house keyboarding, the task was outsourced to a commercial supplier, Offshore Keyboarding Corporation. Charges varied from 0.73 to 0.85 per 1000 characters. The procedure followed was:

<e>…</e> entry, delineating the start and end of each index entry

<pr>..</pr> primary term

<s>..</s> secondary term

<v>..</v> volume number (if a cumulative index to several volumes)

<p>..</p> page number

An example of the marked-up, keyboarded index entries from Philosophical Transactions is shown below:

Image13.gif (4501 bytes)

42. The keyboarded output was converted into INDEX elements within the TEI. This conversion had to take into account the special characteristics of some titles. The printed indexes in Notes and Queries delineated primary and secondary terms more by context then by typography and required extensive editing to provide a form suitable for incorporation into the TEI file. The cumulated index used for Gentleman's Magazine required separation of the index entries for each of the 20 volumes. Where there is an entry for the secondary term only for a given volume, the associated primary term had to be extracted.

43. The intention had been to provide facilities both to search for terms or term combinations within an index, and to display and browse a list of index terms. The latter, which was not implemented during the lifetime of the project, required the conversion of index information into separate TEI conformant documents, which would act as cumulated indexes to a title with links from each entry to the associated image.

44. The total numbers of index entries for each journal title are tabulated below. (An index entry is a separate INDEX element in the TEI file, corresponding to a separate primary or secondary index field in the original file.)




Notes and Queries




Gentleman’s Magazine




Philosophical Transaction




Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine




Annual Register





D : Metadata

45. Metadata content

Several types of metadata have been incorporated into the ILEJ project - these include:

  • No administrative metadata (file resolutions, compression systems used etc.) were included, though bi-tonal/greyscale data were implicit in the file format for each image (gif = bi-tonal; jpg = greyscale).
  • Input of Bibliographical Data

    46. In conjunction with image creation, the scanner operators keyed in the basic bibliographic metadata into an Excel spreadsheet: page run and milestone indicators (e.g. the start of a new issue of a journal) and, in the case of the microfilm images, whether scanned in bi-tonal or greyscales. Accurate input was of critical importance as these files provided the control data for all subsequent automated file processing.

    47. The project had hoped to use the SQL-compliant document management database which came bundled with the PS3000P scanner. However, investigation showed this database to be a closed system that would not allow independent extraction of metadata. The only other metadata produced by the scanner was a simple list file, matching image number against file name. Data from the Minolta scanners was therefore input into an Excel spreadsheet and processed by a simple BASIC programme to produce a text (ASCII) file that matched page-run information with the file produced by the scanner. A set of Perl scripts was then used to generate the SGML identifiers and TEI files automatically from this file. Data from microfilm scanning was also input into an Excel spreadsheet and exported to the FoxPro database programme from which TEI files were constructed. In this case the FoxPro script was used to produce the TEI files, which were parsed and edited as necessary to ensure full TEI conformance.

    SGML file structure

    48. Metadata for the ILEJ project are held in SGML (Standard Generalised Markup Language) files. Several reasons prompted this choice in preference to a proprietary database format:

    49. The ILEJ project uses two Document Type Definitions (DTDs): the Encoded Archival Description (EAD), an application designed to encode collection level descriptions of archives, and the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), a generic and widely used scheme for encoding texts of many types. The EAD is used to provide a basic skeletal description of the Library as a whole; it lists only the journal titles and the individual volumes of each title. Each volume is in turn encoded in a single TEI file, which contains bibliographic information for the journal as a whole and for each constituent page, with links to each image file and, where available, to index entries and OCR'd full text. External links are used in the EAD file to point to each corresponding TEI file.

    50. The approach adopted by the ILEJ project emphasises the physical rather than the intellectual structure of each volume. Each page of the original is represented in the TEI file by a single <DIV> element, from which a link to its related image file is made. The intellectual hierarchy, which cuts across its physical counterpart, is represented by empty <MILESTONE> elements, which delimit the boundaries between distinct units such as weekly issues for The Builder, articles for Philosophical Transactions or monthly issues for Gentleman's Magazine.

    51. SGML supports a system of identifiers, which can be applied throughout a document to provide anchor points for cross-referencing. Every image in the ILEJ database is assigned a unique identifier using the following schema:

    image10.gif (4312 bytes)

    52. Using this approach, it is possible to construct an ID of this form from any item of data or metadata generated in the course of the Project. This ID can then be used to fit any item into its place in the SGML files. The following example illustrates how information from a printed index is converted to an SGML ID and the contents of the index item are then allocated to their correct location in the TEI file for its corresponding volume:-

    Image11.gif (4326 bytes)

    53. The overall structure of the ILEJ project in terms of metadata is shown in the following diagram:

    Image12.gif (5245 bytes)

    54. A script written in Perl uses the Opentext PAT5 search engine to access the contents of the master EAD file in which the structure of the entire collection is encoded, then the relevant TEI file for the contents of the journal volume and the relevant image files for the item being viewed. These files and the bibliographic information from the TEI files are then combined and reformatted to HTML for viewing on the WWW.

    55. Since the ILEJ project started, the usefulness of SGML as the basis of metadata for digital imaging projects has become more widely acknowledged. The Commission onPreservation and Access has recently acknowledged SGML as the most robust format for such metadata (2) and the Library of Congress in its American Memory Program has usedSGML for encoding finding aids and full-text mark-up (3), though metadata used in the SGML files are minimal. References to presentations on the project's approach to metadata are listed in Appendix III.


    E : Servers and Access

    56. The original project plan, when formulated in 1995, envisaged two distinct server strategies, reflecting the different expertise of the two sites:

    57. The arrival of a Web version of EFS, combined with the increasing dominance and universality of the Web and Web browsers, resulted in a modification of this policy. Web servers were mounted at both Leeds and Oxford using EFS (with fuzzy matching capability) and PAT respectively. FTP was used extensively to transfer images from the sites where imaging was taking place to the servers. The hierarchical file server (HFS) based at Oxford was used for all archival purposes.

    58. The server architecture and the transfer flows between sites are shown below:

    Image14.gif (11539 bytes)

    59. The main elements of the workflow were:

    The Interface

    60. The initial point of entry for all users was the Oxford Web interface which is designed to offer users choices between:

    All the journals were browsable but the search options varied: only two offered OCR'd text and no search options were available for The Builder at the end of the project.

    61. The design principles for this interface were:

    Screen dumps of the interface appear in Appendix V.

    62. When fuzzy searching was required the user was transferred to the EFS server at Leeds. Images were downloaded from Leeds as required. The links from Oxford to Leeds were transparent to the users who were unaware that they had moved to another server, though the EFS interface used for fuzzy searching is significantly different from that at Oxford.

    Available Content

    63. The images and indexes for each title that were available at the end of the project are listed below. Only the first four titles were available during the evaluation phase of the project.



    N of Images

    OCR’d Text


    Notes and Queries





    Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine





    Gentleman’s Magazine




    Philosophical Transaction of theRoyal Society





    Annual Register





    The Builder






    64. The Hierarchical File Service at the Oxford University Computing Service was used to archive:


    F : User Recruitment, Usage and Evaluation


    65. Access to ILEJ was freely available on the Internet without password or IP address control. Users were recruited through advertising on UK mailing lists hosted by mail base, internal mailings (paper and electronic) within the four participating institutions, and through journal articles, newsletters and conference papers. Promotion continued throughout the project but a major publicity campaign was undertaken immediately prior to the evaluation in June 1998. Further details of the methods of dissemination of information about access to ILEJ are given in Appendix III. Throughout the project users were asked to complete a Web registration form, which is reproduced in Appendix V, on first using the service. The form requested information on name, department and institution together with information on research and teaching interests, previous use of the paper versions of the ILEJ titles, access to a Web browser, and the likelihood of using the electronic versions of the titles. 377 Users completed the registration form, though neither compulsion nor reward was offered.

    Evaluation Objectives

    66. The project evaluation strategy identified the following objectives for a user evaluation:

    - identity of users
    - frequency of use
    - patterns of use
    - reasons for use

    - images in terms of legibility and appearance
    - the retrieval options

    - presentation
    - content
    - comparison of use of electronic and paper versions



    67. The usage data shown below are for all users, not just those who completed the registration form. These data are subject to the normal limitations of Web statistics arising from the use of caching and proxies. The number of individual pages accessed on the ILEJ Web site in the sixteen months June 1997 to September 1998 are shown in the following bar chart (note that these data include access to pages describing the project, the registration form, the search screen and the lists of volumes, issues and pages in the browse mode, in addition to the page images).

    image2.gif (7617 bytes)

    The number of page images only accessed for each journal is as follows
    image3.gif (10998 bytes)

    68. The peak in June 1998 for both sets of figures corresponds to the publicity associated with the evaluation phase of the project. In the four months June-September 1998 users accessed 181,577 Web pages in total (1,488 per day) and 58,181 page images (476 per day). All titles attracted significant usage but Gentleman's Magazine (35% of accesses during the four months) and Notes and Queries (29%) were the most heavily used. Annual Register and The Builder though not available for the evaluation both attracted significant usage during August and September 1998 (15% and 9% respectively of page images accessed during those two months).

    Questionnaire Survey

    69. 377 Registered users were emailed a nine-question questionnaire on 2nd July 1998; respondents were invited to return the survey by email, fax or post with the deadline set for 17th July 1998. A reminder was sent out a week after the first emailing. Responses were received from 97 users (a 26% response rate). The 26 UK academics who responded to the survey together with 1 undergraduate student and 1 librarian were asked if they would be willing to take part in a telephone interview. In the event, 6 semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out with 5 academics and 1 librarian. A detailed description and analysis of user feedback appears in Appendix VI, together with the Web registration form and the questionnaire survey. The results are summarised below.

    70. The occupational and geographical distribution of registered users (377) and questionnaire respondents (97) are shown in the following bar charts. Academics were by far the largest occupational group (64% of registered users) and UK users (49%) were the largest geographical group though with a substantial US contribution (33%). The profiles of questionnaire respondents and registered users were broadly similar though respondents showed a slightly higher proportion of academics (70% against 64%) and of US users (36% against 33%) and a lower proportion of UK users (46% against 49%). We concluded that the respondents were representative of the registered user group as a whole, but there is no evidence as to whether the registered users were representative of the total (unknown) user population, other than the journal preference data summarised in para. 73.

    Reasons for using the Service

    71. The survey data provided an overview of research and teaching interests of respondents using ILEJ. These fall broadly into the following categories:

    72. ILEJ is being used for a variety of purposes, including:

    Journals used

    73. Respondents were asked which titles they had used. The frequencies of use were similar to those exhibited by the Web usage data for page images (for all use), viz:

    Respondents Web usage (June-September 1998)

    Gentleman's Magazine 33% 40%

    Notes and Queries 26% 23%

    Blackwood's Magazine 28% 23%

    Philosophical Transactions 13% 13%

    66 (68%) Respondents had previously used the paper copies of volumes available in ILEJ. A further 19% had used paper copies of volumes of the same titles which were not covered by ILEJ.

    Preferred method of finding information

    74. The preferred methods of finding information were simple search (47%), browsing (37%) and fuzzy searching (16%).

    User satisfaction with ILEJ

    75. Respondents were asked to indicate their satisfaction with various features of the service on a 1 (= poor) to 5 (= excellent) scale. The responses for 11 characteristics of ILEJ are summarised below. Overall users expressed satisfaction with the service. Speed of access, which was given the least favorable satisfaction ranking, was given a score of 4 or 5 by 51% of respondents, and of 3, 4 or 5 by 78%. In all other cases at least 60% gave a 4 or 5 ranking and 88% a 3, 4 or 5. Clarity and legibility of images, ease of searching (simple search) and speed of search (fuzzy searching) were given high satisfaction ratings. However, for each factor there were some users who expressed reservations, experienced serious problems or made critical comments which are of value in considering the future development of the service.

    76. Comments included:

    A more detailed survey of user comments appears in Appendix VI.


    77. Users were asked about their experiences of printing hard copy from ILEJ was also surveyed. Somewhat unexpectedly, 49% of respondents did not feel the need to print. Many are using the service to track down brief references rather than full articles, so the need for printing is lessened. A further 29% were able to print what they needed. A significant minority (22%) did not get satisfactory results when printing. Problems encountered included difficulties in image size when printed (images getting split over two pages rather than one), cropping of images so that part of the image is lost when printed and problems with slowness of printing.

    Comparison of Paper and Electronic Versions

    78. Overall, when asked about their preferences for paper or electronic versions of the titles, the majority of respondents felt that they were happy using a combination of paper and electronic, with a preference for electronic where available, though there was a continuing need for an occasional reference to print material. The value of electronic access was strongly recognised, with respondents citing additional flexibility, enhanced searching capabilities, ease of access and time saving in the research process as factors influencing their preference for electronic materials.


    79. The feedback indicated general satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for, the service but identified imitations which need to be addressed in future services.


    G : Cost Models

    80. The identifiable expenditure on the project (Appendix VII) was 338,000 from eLib funding and an estimated 120,000 in institutional contributions of staff time (including overheads). The total of 458,000 represents an expenditure of 4.21 per indexed page image accessible on the Internet. This estimate of expenditure does not take into account the costs of the contribution of the IT and library infrastructures of the four Institutions.

    Bound Volume Scanning Costs

    81. The production line unit costs for creating the images were, however, much lower. The following spreadsheet shows the estimated costs for creating ready-to-mount, indexed and processed images for each of the four titles scanned from bound volumes. These costs represent production mode experience when development and experimental work had been largely completed and standard procedures established (with a qualification that the learning curve lasted throughout the project with procedures continuing to be refined). These costs do not include:

    82. The three main cost categories identified in the spreadsheet are:

    Further details of the method of calculating costs appear in Appendix VII.

    Notes and Queries Annual Register Blackwoods Philosophical Trans.
    No of images scanned





    Average number of pages scanned per hour





    Operation Cost () % of total Cost () % of total Cost () % of total Cost () % of total
    per image cost per image cost per image cost per image cost


    Prescanning/raw metadata










    Scanning (staff)










    Scanning (equipment)









    Total image creation (operations 1 to 3)

















    Keyboarding of indexes





    n/a* ---- 0.02


    Total index creation (operations 4 and 5)










    Ftping and related activity










    Image conversion










    File structuring, naming and handling










    Quality review










    SGML conversion










    File indexing (for Open Text)










    Equipment and software for 6 –11









    Total for image conversion and processing









    (operations 6 -12)
    Total all operations ()





    *Blackwood's used periodical Contents Index (PCI) records provided without charge by Chadwyck-Healey
    These were not costed but the processing costs include the processing of these and other indexes.


    83. The absolute values given in the above table must be treated with caution. They are dependent both on the accuracy with which staff costs are estimated, the costs which are included or excluded, and the extent to which procedures are still under development. With this qualification, the data shows that the cost of creating an unprocessed image is in the range 0.20 - 0.21 for all four titles. If we assume an error of 25% in the data, the cost range would be 0.15 - 0.27. Similarly, the cost of creating a "ready-to-mount" indexed and processed image is in the range 0.39 - 0.74 (0.29 to 0.93 assuming 25% error). This broader range is largely the result of differences in index creation costs.

    84. Of more significance are the relative costs between titles and between different processes which have been estimated on the same basis. Specific comparisons to be noted, which identify factors which can influence costs, are:

    Microfilm scanning costs

    85. The processes for image creation from microfilm were not costed at the same level of detail as those for bound volumes, largely because the experimental and development stages overlapped extensively with production line operation. However, three factors increased the cost of raw image creation from microfilm, in comparison with that from bound volumes:

    The overall effect of these three factors is to roughly double the cost from 0.20 to 0.40 per image.

    Access costs

    86. The estimated cost of continuing to provide ILEJ on the present or an equivalent server, taking into account hardware and software capital and maintenance and staff costs, is c. 3,300 per annum, 0.03 per page per annum. This excludes costs of the second EFS server at Leeds which provides the fuzzy matching facility.

    Archiving costs

    87. Archiving costs have been excluded from the above discussion. The cost for storing data indefinitely, i.e. including capital replacement, running costs, support etc., is estimated at 20 per Gb per annum which gives a total cost for the ILEJ project (122 Gb) of c. 2,400 per annum, 0.02 per page per annum.


    H : Exit Strategy

    88. ILEJ offers distributed access to UK material and is a contribution to the Integrated Information Environment envisaged in the CEI Content Working Group discussion paper (4). It is a potential resource for two hybrid library projects in which ILEJ institutions are involved: BUILDER (Birmingham, Oxford) and MALIBU (Oxford). The ILEJ corpus also complements material of the same era provided by JSTOR (though the pre-20th century content of JSTOR is limited) and by Chadwyck Healey's LION project. However, the small number of titles and relatively short runs limits the value of ILEJ as a resource.

    89. A proposal was submitted to JISC in November 1997 for an ILEJ-2 project which would use the experience gained in ILEJ to create a corpus of images of 800,000 pages of Victorian journals for the period 1837-1902, in the areas of history and literature broadly interpreted. The core of this selection would be drawn from the titles listed in The Wellesley Index to Victorian Periodicals, 1824-1900, augmented by representative newspaper format journals such as Punch, political serials such as Hansard's, religious titles for each of the major denominations of the period, and scholarly journals such as English Historical Review which began publication in the mid- to late-19th century. It was proposed that the JISC data centre, MIDAS, which had also been contracted to provide access to JSTOR, should provide access to this corpus and to the ILEJ images. This proposal was unsuccessful.

    90. In the absence of funding for a follow-up project, our exit strategy requires that the Oxford Web site, together with the full existing browse and search facilities provided by Oxford and Leeds servers, should continue for at least 12 months from the end of the project (until August 1999). During that period we would:

    91. In the light of this feedback, we would seek to identify a permanent means of providing access, and to encourage the funding of an expanded corpus along the lines outlined in para. 89. One of the possible options would be for Oxford to maintain a server offering access on a permanent basis beyond August 1999 to both ILEJ and other digitised material resulting from projects in Oxford funded by HEFCE and from other sources.

    92. The Oxford Hierarchical File Server will provide long-term storage for images and indexes created in the project (paras. 64, 87).

    93. The ILEJ corpus is one of the exemplars being used in the eLib3a CEDARS (CURL exemplars in digital archives) project, based at Oxford, Leeds and Cambridge, which is addressing issues relating to the preservation of digital material.


    I : Achievements, Failures, Conclusions and Recommendations

    94. The achievements and failures of the project must be measured against the overall objectives of the project stated in para. 2 :

    The project sought to enhance access to holdings of research libraries by creating electronic copies of print and microfilm holdings which could be accessed via the Internet. The specific objective was to create and to provide user access to a corpus of digitised images from three 18th- and three 19th- century journals.

    Specific issues to be investigated are outlined in para. 2.

    Bound Volume Scanning

    95. The project has successfully defined the scanning parameters and procedures for using the Minolta PS3000 open book scanner to produce images of acceptable quality though with some variation in legibility, aesthetic quality and OCRability. Specific problems identified and, as far as possible, resolved:

    96. A throughput of 80-100 pages an hour, over three times that predicted in the original proposal (25 pages an hour), was achieved. The subsequent processing of images and addition of metadata required more time and resources than image creation itself  (para. 119). A total of 91,000 images from four titles (20 or 21 volumes of each) were created.

    97. Zeutschel Omniscan 5000 scanning equipment, purchased by HEDS during the second year of the ILEJ project (and other equipment now on the market) provides a much higher level of operator support though at a higher capital cost (x 5). We would expect such equipment to provide a more consistent image quality and a higher throughput.

    Microfilm Scanning

    98. The project has successfully defined parameters and procedures for the Mekel (MX500XL-G) to produce images of acceptable, though variable quality. The project limited its objectives to the use of two pre-existing microfilms of one 18th-century and one 19th-century title. The problems encountered with scanning from bound volumes (para. 94) are replicated in a microfilm, which is itself created from a bound volume.

    99. An effective average throughput of 40 (The Builder) and 70 (Gentleman’s Magazine) images per hour were achieved (2 images = 1). This is less than that achieved with the Minolta and far below the throughput predicted in the original proposal (250 pages per hour) or that claimed in the manufacturer’s specification (600 pages an hour at 200 dpi with grey scales). Throughput with the Gentleman's Magazine was limited by the need for frequent changes in the parameters and the problems in separating and cropping the two-image frames. Throughput with The Builder was limited by large image sizes, which resulted in extended cropping times and disc space bottlenecks.

    100. Further insights into the use of microfilm as an image source are provided by three other projects:

    101. In addition, publishers are examining a twin-track strategy in which microfilm is created for preservation and digital images for access. This strategy can be implemented either by first creating a microfilm copy then images from the microfilm or vice versa.

    102. We recommend that further investigations should be undertaken of:


    Impact of Resolution on Image Quality

    103. With the Minolta, a resolution of 400dpi bi-tonal gave satisfactory legibility for all titles. Greyscales were not available but, if they had been, might have improved the quality of OCR and made it possible to OCR other titles. With the Mekel, the Gentleman's Magazine required either 300dpi bi-tonal or 100dpi with greyscales, depending on the frame quality, to provide legible images. The Builder was scanned at a minimum of 200dpi with greyscales (bi-tonal scanning was not effective).


    104. The following processes have been successfully implemented:


    Indexing for retrieval

    105. In comparison with the paper indexes, retrieval capability has been enhanced by two types of electronic index:

    The capability of both was increased by the availability of truncation and Boolean search facilities. Users expressed a relatively high level of satisfaction with search outcomes but no detailed analysis of retrieval capability was undertaken.

    Optical Character Recognition

    106. Two 19th-century journals were successfully OCR'd to provide a low cost index (cf. para. 119 below) though at a level of accuracy far below that which would be required for display purposes. The OCR'd texts offer far greater depth of indexing than conventional indexes but with inevitable loss of precision and retrieval failures associated with the high OCR error rate, partly corrected by the use of fuzzy matching software. No quantitative estimates were made of the level of retrieval failures or of the reduction in failures arising from the use of fuzzy matching.

    107. The OCRing process using Omnipage has provided the opportunity to examine isolated problem areas such as:

    108. We recommend that:

    For microfilm products:

    For paper products:

    For either:

    Conversion of the printed index

    109. The project demonstrated that satisfactory indexes for retrieval could be created by the conversion to electronic form of printed indexes published contemporaneously with the original. Two conversion methods were used:


    110. The complexity of providing appropriate metadata for 18th and 19th century originals was under-estimated. Valuable lessons were learnt, in particular the need to check and verify in advance the pagination of the originals and to allow for the administrative overhead required at the planning stage in order to define a metadata formula for each individual title. In the journals covered in the project there were examples of pages without numbers, duplicate paginations, inserts, plates and differences in the composition of duplicate volumes in different institutions.

    111. The project created a flexible, extendible metadata structure based on SGML files and on two Document Type Definitions (DTDs): the Encoded Archival Description (EAD) and the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI). The hierarchical structure of an SGML-encoded document mirrors the structure of the original journals, making the creation of their virtual surrogates simpler and more logical. The metadata provides for unique identification of each image and for links to the bibliographic description of the paper copy and to a range of indexes.

    It includes Dublin Core compliant metadata in the HTML <META> tags. No administrative metadata (resolutions, compression systems used, etc.) were included.

    112. We recommend that future digitisation projects should consider:

    Data transfer between sites

    113. Procedures were established for routine image transfer between sites by ftp over SuperJanet. Images created at Manchester, Birmingham or Oxford could then be processed at Leeds or Oxford and archived at Oxford. Because of capacity limits on local stage buffers, image transfers had to be carefully co-ordinated to prevent overflow of disc reservoirs at the draft production stages. This required careful timetabling and transfer failures could cause major delays because of the need to wait for the next free timetable slot.

    Presentation to the User

    114. The arrival of a Web version of EFS combined with the increasing domination and universality of Web browsers led to the abandonment of X-Windows as a delivery platform. Web servers were configured at Leeds (using EFS) and Oxford (using the PAT (Opentext) search engine). All user access was to the Oxford url with a transparent link to Leeds from which images were downloaded as required. A user interface was developed which offered browse, simple search and fuzzy search capabilities.

    115. We recommend that a further revision of the user interface be undertaken in the light of feedback from users.

    The Users' View

    116. Once all journals were available a substantial level of user activity was generated with 370 users registering and a (probably much) larger number using the site. In June 1998 16,000 page images were accessed with all titles attracting some activity but Gentleman's Magazine (29% of accesses) and Notes and Queries (25%) the most popular.

    117. The evaluation of user responses to the service revealed general satisfaction with respect to content, speed of access, ease of navigation, legibility of image and search facilities. Areas in which the service was criticised or improvements requested included:

    Surprisingly, printing was not a major issue with more than half the respondents not feeling a need to print.

    118. We recommend an extended evaluation of user reactions to content, interface and search facilities in this and in other projects, noting that this is already being done in the SuperJournal project, and that the ILEJ Consortium would hope to undertake some further evaluation during the next 12 months, and would continue to record usage figures.


    119. An analysis was undertaken of the production-line costs of creating indexed, processed, ready-to-mount images. This analysis excluded the costs of general project management, experimentation and development, providing access, archiving and the contribution of the IT and library infrastructure of the institutions. The results of this analysis are indicative, not definitive, but do demonstrate that:

    Use of bound volumes

    120. The project demonstrated that bound volumes (or microfilms of bound volumes) could be used to provide legible images. Apart from initial testing in the early stages of the project, no direct comparisons were made with the use of dismembered volumes on flatbed or sheet feed equipment. However, we are satisfied that the use of dismembered volumes (as in JSTOR) would result in higher throughput, lower cost and higher quality.

    121. We recommend that the issue of using dismembered volumes at least for 18th- and 19th-century material which is still widely available, should be addressed by JISC, CURL and the UK academic community, recognising that the acceptability of this option would decrease with increasing age and rarity of the material.

    Content and Critical Mass

    122. The objective of ILEJ was to offer access to a critical mass of journal runs but there is no quantitative definition of what constitutes critical mass. Feedback so far indicates that the amount of material was sufficient to be of interest, but there was a demand for expansion in terms of the length of journal runs and the range of titles (para. 117).

    123. An unsuccessful bid was made to eLib for an ILEJ-2 project to create 800,000 page images of journals from the Victorian period, based on those listed in the Wellesley Index. There is also (cf. para. 88) considerable commercial interest in offering electronic access to pre-20th century material from publishers such as Chadwyck-Healey and UMI. Hitherto the electronic forms had been created by keyboarding of full-text, not image capture, and complete journals had not been included. However, the UMI Early English Books Project is creating images from UMI’s microfilm.

    124. We recommend that:

    Project Management

    125. The work of ILEJ was distributed across four sites with each making a substantial contribution and having technical or clerical staff employed on the project. Project management was vested in the joint Project Leaders, based at Leeds and Oxford, and the other members of the Project Executive (para. 11, Appendix II). This structure was successful in encouraging team working and providing effective co-ordination among the sites. The project benefited substantially from being able to draw on a wide range of expertise on all four sites to facilitate successful problem solving on technical and management issues.

    126. As a result of the project, a wide range of expertise, knowledge and experience has been acquired by individuals in four major research libraries. These skills will be put to use in further projects, e.g. hybrid libraries, digital preservation, in which the institutions are engaged, and in the development of in-house and community-wide digitisation strategies. However, skills of scanner operators, employed only during the project, were lost at the end of the project.

    127. The project has been publicised through papers and presentations (Appendix III) which have contributed to the development of digitisation practice and strategy.

    128. The original proposal assumed that a particular technology – greyscale scanning capability – would be available at an early stage. The most serious management problems encountered in the project arose because this assumption proved incorrect. The project was reasonably successful in "working round" the delays in the availability of greyscales (para. 15), but this did cause a major distortion of the project timetable. As a result, staff resources were spread thinly and there were insufficient time and resources to deal with some of the technical issues which were encountered at a later stage in the project than originally planned. In particular the evaluation phase was compressed into the final three months of the project.

    129. We recommend that project plans should take into account the implications of basing projects on promised (however firmly) rather than actual technology, even though doing so may be unavoidable.

    130. Other management and resourcing issues were:

    131. We recommend that a full-time Project Manager, funded by the Project, should be appointed for multi-site projects of this size.

    132. In addition to the creation of 120,000 images (110,000 actually achieved), the project envisaged index creation by both OCR and keyboarding, the design of metadata, configuration and maintenance of two servers, the provision of Internet access and evaluation. In retrospective these multiple objectives may have been over-ambitious in relation to resources requested. The thinking behind the original proposal and the resource allocation were dominated by image creation issues and, in particular, equipment costs which represented 56% of total project expenditure. The three person years of research staff time, even with substantial additional input from members of the executive, was barely adequate to meet the project objectives.


    J : Summary of Recommendations from Section H

    The recommendations made in the previous section (H) are reproduced below. Paragraph numbers from Section H are given in parentheses.

    133. (102) We recommend that further investigations should be undertaken of:

     134. (108) We recommend that:

    For the microfilm products:

    For paper products:

    For either:

    135. (112) We recommend that future digitisation projects should consider:

    136. (115) We recommend that a further revision of the user interface be undertaken in the light of feedback from users.

    137. (118) We recommend an extended evaluation of user reactions to content, interface and  search facilities in this and in other projects, noting that this is already being done in the SuperJournal project and that members of the ILEJ Consortium would hope to undertake some further evaluation during the next 12 months, and would continue of record usage figures.

    138. (121) We recommend that the issue of using dismembered volumes at least for 18th- and 19th- century material which is still widely available, should be addressed by JISC, CURL and the UK academic community, recognising that the acceptability of this option would decrease with increasing age and rarity of the material.

    139. (124) We recommend that:

      140. (129) We recommend that project plans should take into account the implications of basing projects on promised (however firmly) rather than actual technology, even though doing so may be unavoidable.

    141. (131) We recommend that a full-time Project Manager, funded by the Project, should be appointed for multi-site projects of this size.



    A large number of organisations and individuals contributed content, ideas or support to theproject. We would especially like to acknowledge:

    Cambridge University Library, and Peter Fox, the Librarian, and Elizabeth Harrison in particular, for providing a copy of the Mellon microfilm of the Gentleman’s Magazine (1731-1830).

    Manchester Public Libraries for providing a copy of The Builder microfilm (1843-52).

    Birmingham Public Library for providing volumes of the Annual Register which were missing from the Birmingham University holdings.

    Chadwyck-Healey Ltd. For the supply of the Periodical Contents Indexes (PCI) for the volumes of Blackwoods used in the project, and Sir Charles Chadwyck-Healey and Michael Healey for useful discussions on image creation from microfilm.

    UMI for the gift of a microfilm copy of The Builder (1853-55).

    Esteem Computers for assistance in testing of the EFS software.

    Michael Alexander (British Library) for advice

    Primary Source Media [now a part of the Gale Group], and Mark Holland in particular, for the offer of microfilm volumes of the Annual Register.

    The organisers and contributors to the Digitisation Workshops at Cornell University Library, which were attended by two project staff.

    Ross Coleman and Colin Webb from the Australian Co-operative Digitisation (Ferguson) project.

    All users of the service who contributed to the evaluation.



    1. Kenney, A.R. and Chapman, S. Digital imaging for libraries and archives. Cornell University Library, Department of Preservation and Conservation. Ithaca, NY 1996. ISBN : 85604 207 3
    2. Coleman, J. SGML as a framework for digital preservation and access. Commission on Preservation and Access. Washington DC 1997. ISBN 188 7334 513
    3. Library of Congress American Memory DTD for historical documents.
    4. An integrated information environment for higher education : developing the Distributed, National Electronic Resource (DNER). Committee on Electronic Information (CEI) – Content Working Group. December 1997.
    5. Conway, P. Conversion of microfilm to digital imagery : a demonstration project: performance report on the production conversion phase of Project Open Book. Yale University Library. New Haven, Conn. 1996.
    6. Kenney, A.R. Digital to microfilm conversion : a demonstration project, 1994-6. Final report to the National Endowment for the Humanities. Cornell University Library. Department of Preservation and Conservation. Ithaca, NY 1996.
    7. Electronic Alchemy : The Australian Co-operative Digitisation Project 1840-45. National Library of Australia.
      Also: Webb, C. The Ferguson project : a hybrid approach reformatting rare Australiana.
    8. ProQuest. Digital Research Collections.