Appendix J: Costed Collections

(Produced by S. Tanner, HEDS)

1 Introduction

During June 1999 a HEDS Consultant had the opportunity to visit a number of the Oxford University special collections. These collections were selected by Dr Stuart Lee and the Oxford Digital Library Scoping Study Steering Group for consideration as potential future digitisation projects. The libraries and collections visited were: Dr Stuart Lee and Dr Marilyn Deegan provided valuable guidance and introductions for the HEDS Consultant during these visits.

The HEDS remit was to visit each collection and discuss the materials with the owner/curator of the collection. The purpose of each visit was to elicit the overall nature, content, condition and viability of the materials when viewed from the perspective of conversion to electronic formats. The result of these visits are recommendations for suitable digitisation processes for the materials viewed and the provision of indicative costs of conversion. Please note that the HEDS remit extends only so far as scanning the original materials and no costs for further conversions such as indexing or mark-up or pre-scan work such as material preparation or photography are included in this report.

2 The Collections

HEDS were able to gain an good overview of the collections through structured questioning of the expert owner/curators and also by viewing the materials that had been made available. The HEDS Consultant has not viewed the complete collection in any visit, but gained enough information from a selective sample for an assessment of the overall nature and viability of the collection for digitisation. HEDS have not taken any copies or samples from any of the collections viewed, as the materials may not be moved from the University.

It should be noted that HEDS were instructed to view the potential projects as if it were possible to move the materials outside of Oxford University to an outsourced supplier of digitisation services, such as HEDS. This report will indicate whether materials from each collection might realistically be moved outside of the University.

3 Mazarinades Pamphlets

3.1 Findings from Visit

The Mazarinades pamphlets are held at the Taylor Institution Library and are the original documents from between 1649 and 1652, written in French, and revolving around the ambitions of Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661). An estimated 1,700 quarto size pamphlets are presented in 21 bound volumes. There are 2 other large holdings of Mazarinades known in the UK, at the London School of Economics and John Rylands University Library of Manchester. There is possibly a version of the pamphlets on microfilm in the USA at Harvard, but this has yet to be confirmed.

The collection is not perceived as being used to its full potential at present. This is not aided by the catalogue on OPAC, which presents a single entry for an overall index, rather than providing information in an easily available way on individual pamphlets. There is a printed bibliography available. The collection owners view digitisation as an opportunity not only to create an electronic image of the pamphlets, but to provide better finding aids as well. This aspiration would certainly help create a useful electronic resource.

The nature of the originals is variable, with several styles and ages of bindings and treatments of the pamphlets contained. Some of the bindings are vellum dating back to the 17th century. Many of the pamphlets have been cut to a uniform size to fit into the bindings (quarto size). The printed text of the pamphlets is always a single column with plenty of white space around it. The language used is French, and whilst the font and text size vary across the pamphlets, no text was found below 6 point size. There are usually some hand written notes in the back of the bound volume describing the content. The printed text is generally clear and distinct on the thick paper used for the pamphlets. There is always some foxing, bleed or show-through throughout the pamphlet collection. The overall feel of the pamphlets is of robust, good condition considering the age of the materials.

For the majority of items viewed, the bindings are tight and any wide opening of the original items would cause visible degradation. HEDS recommends that the items be opened to no more than 90o for any purpose. There are several other pamphlets viewed which are either kept in separate archive folders or where the binding is now so damaged or fragile that the pamphlets are kept boxed. These items can be handled in the same way as the bound volumes but will inevitably either become single sheets or require further conservation treatments post digitisation. There was one other thin bound volume viewed, the Testament de Richelieu, which is half printed pamphlet and half written manuscript. This item showed very faint writing which would need higher resolution scans than the other items viewed to capture the content effectively.

The pamphlets are all numbered, but there are some pamphlets repeated in different bindings. This pamphlet number is only unique to the bound volume and within this collection/binding. Any items used from other collections would be likely to have other numbering. The bound volumes are loosely arranged in chronological order. Each page side of the pamphlets is numbered and this makes for identification of unique pages into unique digital files very easy to check and to manage. There were approximately 30 pages per pamphlet viewed, suggesting a total volume of 51,000 page sides.

3.2 Recommendations for Digitisation

The materials viewed only lend themselves to imaging and not to other post-processing such as OCR. The fact that each pamphlet is an individual document suggests that once a digital master scan of each page is created, then a surrogate which displays all the pages as if in the original document would be suitable for the end-user. Files could be arranged by their binding and then by the pamphlet, listed in the order they appear in the binding - this would make finding items using the current bibliography possible. The creation of finding aids or further identification of unique pamphlets would be a curatorial process. The bindings themselves are interesting artefacts in their own right and could be photographed and scanned at negligible cost for only 21 volumes.

The collection would naturally lend itself to being scanned using overhead, bound volume digital camera scanning technology. However, should a good microfilm version of the pamphlets be found then scanning from microfilm would be comparatively economical and cause less stress on the original materials.

There was expressed a distinct desire to let only one or two bound volumes out of the Taylor Institution Library at any one time for the digitisation process. Whilst this project could be achieved by out-sourced services this would not be met with curatorial enthusiasm.

Handling of the original materials will incur a high overhead of staff time and effort compared to the actual scan times for the digitisation. It is noted that items should not be opened wider than 900 and this means that only one page side per opening may be scanned at any one time.

All recommended specifications shown below could be completed within the technology, equipment and boundaries of the Oxford Digitisation Service model being contemplated by the Oxford Scoping Study Steering Group.

Suggested Basic Specification

Equipment: Overhead bound volume digital camera with cradle for bound materials and cold lighting. Or: Microfilm scanner should microfilm become available.

Resolution: 400 dpi

Bit depth: 8-bit, 256 greyscales.

Output:Uncompressed TIFF. Or: Minimum compressed JPEG for microfilm.

The use of 400 dpi will capture the content and detail of the pamphlets adequately, whilst the use of greyscale will ensure that the look and feel of the page is retained. Some covers and certain pages might be considered at 24-bit colour as special cases.

3.3 Potential Cost Factors

Handling: The costs of digitising this type of resource are all based around the costs of preparing the materials for digitisation and the handling of the materials during the process rather than scan times. The costs of scanning by bound volume scanners are not normally this high if only considering materials which do not need the sort of care and attention demanded by this project.

Transport and insurance: These costs could be considerable if sending the materials off-site for out-sourced servicing. As the Library would generally expect to send in batches the transport costs are elevated. As the items are rare they would be likely to incur special insurance costs. These factors are not costed here as the facts available are not sufficient for estimation.

Volume: Due to the handling factors described above the pricing cannot take into account the estimated 51,000 page sides volume. Normally economies of scale might mitigate pricing, but in this project there is no automation or economy possible due to the nature of the originals.

Unit Costs for Bound Volume Scanning: £0.89 per page side (ex VAT) 51,000 x £0.89 = £45,390 (ex VAT)

Unit Costs for Microfilm scanning: £0.20 per page side (ex VAT) 51,000 x £0.20 = £10,200 (ex VAT)

Due to the microfilm being an unknown quality or format (35mm or 16mm) this unit cost must be viewed as speculative and indicative only.

Surrogate Creation: None of the above figures account for the creation of surrogates designed for ease of access. The format and specification for these will be dependant upon whichever dissemination resource is chosen and thus outside the scope of this report. However, it is would be reasonable to estimate that no straight surrogate conversion will cost more than either 15% of scan unit costs or a maximum of £0.40 per unit (ex VAT).

4 Statutes of the Realm (Bodleian Law Library)

4.1 Findings from Visit

The Statutes of the Realm are the documents printed, by command of King George the Third, between 1810-22 to list all the statutes in force or repealed for the period 1225-1713. There are 12 bound volumes of folio size. The volumes held by the Bodleian Law Library were specially created for the Bodleian in 1811 and are a comprehensive record. There are other known collections of these materials and the content should be standard across collections. Surrogates are not available at Oxford University, but microfilm and fiche versions have been created in the USA, as referenced at the Auburn University Library, Alabama(1), the University of Oregon Library(2) and the University of California Library(3).

During the visit, one of Barbara Tearle’s colleagues stated that the Statutes of the Realm were available electronically from an American source. No evidence has yet been presented to demonstrate the availability of the Statutes in electronic form, but further research before digitisation is highly recommended.

Each volume is bound in leather and the binding allows the work to open to 1700, although support for the opening side is recommended to preserve the spine. Within each binding there are approximately 800-1000 page sides. The total volume is estimated at between 10-12,000 page sides. The paper is strong and relatively clean but has signs of wavy edges and some damage to page edges. The printed text is clear throughout, with only a little show-through and some occasional foxing. There is very little variation across this collection and all volumes exhibit similar characteristics and layout.

A typical volume has the following layout and characteristics:

· Foldouts - there are a few foldouts which are reproductions of statutes with seals and handwritten text. These are in relatively poor condition in comparison to the rest of the volume pages.

· Indexes - there are indexes at the rear of every volume in 2 columns of English printed text at 10-12 point size.

· Misc - there is some tabular content spread amongst the main pages and a list of plates may be found at the rear of a volume.

All the text, whether English or Latin, uses abbreviation and contractions. There is also extensive use of diacritics in all printed text.

The collection is quite well used at present and there are frequent requests for photocopies which are generally rejected. The collection has a potential market value outside of the University in electronic format. If the collection were digitised then finding aids and possibly OCR, for full-text search and retrieval, would be desired.

4.2 Recommendations for Digitisation

The preferred method for access for the majority of end-users is likely to be by individual statute. Thus, the creation of Master scanned images for each page should be considered for archiving, with aggregated surrogates created at the statute level for end-user access. The end-user may wish to view the electronic version in the same order as it appears in the original and this would be a useful facility to provide. A further request made was that full-text searching would be of great advantage to the prospective user base.

The materials viewed lend themselves to imaging. Any OCR done would gain only approximately 60-70% accuracy without correction and that accuracy rate would drop for small characters and where diacritics and contractions are used in the text. The OCR and mark-up processes for this project are beyond reasonable specification at this time and the costs of such conversion, where accuracy of >99% where desired, would be likely to exceed £3 per page.

The collection would naturally lend itself to being scanned using overhead, bound volume digital camera scanning technology. If one of the microfilm versions (not microfiche) of the Statutes could be used as a source for scanning this would be comparatively economical and cause less stress on the original materials.

It is noted that items should not be opened wider than 1700. The size of each individual page is such that most overhead scanners will not be able to scan both leaves at the same time and retain a high enough resolution to display the content well. This means that only page side per opening may be scanned at any one time.

There was expressed a desire to let only one or two bound volumes out of the Library at any one time for the digitisation process. This project could be achieved by out-sourced services.

All recommended specifications shown below could be completed within the technology, equipment and boundaries of the Oxford Digitisation Service model being contemplated by the Oxford Scoping Study Steering Group.

Suggested Basic Specification

Equipment: Overhead bound volume digital camera with cradle for bound materials and cold lighting. Or: Microfilm scanner should microfilm become available.

Resolution: 300 dpi or for microfilm: 400 dpi (note this resolution measured in relation to original page size, not optical scan resolution)

Bit depth: 1-bit, Black and White.

Output:Uncompressed TIFF. Or: Minimum compressed JPEG for microfilm.

The use of 300 dpi will capture the content adequately and is based on the page size being very large. Most production based overhead scanners cannot produce higher resolutions at greater than A3 size. The use of black and white will keep the file sizes manageable although greyscale would give a better sense of the feel of the page. All the foldout pages should be converted as greyscale image scans.

There is a trade-off implicit in this specification, due to the size of the page, in terms of resolution. The resolution recommended will not enable great OCR accuracy and some very small characters may remain readable but open to error in interpretation. There is not an easy or cheap way around this problem. Even scanning from microfilm does not remove the problem, due to the 2nd or 3rd generation nature of the medium and the need to reproduce the reduction ratios, the quality of scans at higher resolutions will present large file sizes without appreciably better results.

4.3 Potential Cost Factors

Handling: The size and weight of the originals will be a factor in the handling costs for these materials. However, normal preservation level handling without other special treatments would be suitable and costs may be mitigated.

Transport and insurance: These costs would need to be carefully considered when sending the materials off-site for out-sourced servicing. As the Library would generally expect to send in batches the transport costs get elevated. As the items are rare they would be likely to incur special insurance costs. These factors are not costed here as the facts available are not sufficient for estimation.

Volume: Note that the volumes of this project (10-12,000) are insufficient to attract significant price discounts.

Unit Costs for Bound Volume Scanning: £0.49 per page side (ex VAT) 12,000 x £0.49 = £5,880 (ex VAT)

Unit Costs for Microfilm: £0.20 per page side (ex VAT) 12,000 x £0.20 = £2,400 (ex VAT)

Due to the microfilm being an unknown quality or format (35mm or 16mm) this unit cost must be viewed as speculative and indicative only.

Surrogate Creation: None of the above figures account for the creation of surrogates designed for ease of access. The format and specification for these will be dependant upon whichever dissemination resource is chosen and thus outside the scope of this report. However, it is would be reasonable to estimate that no straight surrogate conversion will cost more than either 15% of scan unit costs or a maximum of £0.40 per unit (ex VAT).

5 The 'Select 50' Manuscripts (Bodleian, Department of Western Manuscripts)

5.1 Findings from Visit

The Select 50 are manuscripts taken from the collections of the Department of Western Manuscripts. The actual manuscripts were not viewed during the HEDS visit and all work will be completed from surrogate materials. There are two forms of surrogate materials available; 35mm microfilm strips and colour transparencies (in 35mm slides or possibly 5"x4" transparency). Surrogate materials were viewed in the Department of Western Manuscripts but the HEDS Consultant also visited the Bodleian Photographic Studio to discuss the technical specification behind surrogate creation at Oxford University.

For this project, both types of media could be sent to an out-source service for digitisation without any difficulty.

5.1.1 35mm Microfilm Reels

The microfilm versions of selected manuscripts have been created since the 1950s. There have been a variety of standards of filming over this long period. All of the Master films are in negative format, all copies are positives and all filming is in bitonal, black and white. The films viewed were in reasonable condition, but access to a first copy or master would be essential to enable high quality scans. Almost all of the exposures were taken of an opening, rather than a single page side and the scanning should be treated as scanning an opening (therefore a frame) rather than each page. There are approximately 10,556 exposures on microfilm.

There will be a variety of reduction ratios used throughout the filming. The reduction ratio relates the size of the original document compared to the size of the microfilm image, expressed as a ratio: for example, 24 to 1, or 24:1, or 24x. The reduction ratio depends on the size of the original document and the microfilm format. The smallest reduction ratio for any microfilm application generally produces the best quality microfilm. It is essential to know or be able to ascertain the reduction ratio for scanning to enable proper re-magnification, focus and representation of the original page at any given resolution.

All the filming of manuscripts at Oxford is done to ensure that the original page leaf, when represented on microfilm, fills the height dimension of the microfilm. This means there will have been a variety of reduction ratios used across manuscripts and these are not recorded anywhere. The other factor, at Oxford University, is that microfilms are produced so that as many frames may be fitted onto a reel as possible. If this is remains true for the manuscript microfilms, then not only is the reduction ratio for each manuscript unknown (as it is unrecorded) but it may change midway through the microfilm when a new manuscript begins. The reduction ratio can be ascertained reliably only by knowing the original size of the manuscript and this will be required to enable quality scanning.

5.1.2 Colour 35mm Transparency Slides

There are approximately 3,308 slide mounted 35mm transparencies available of the Select 50 manuscripts. The content from 8 manuscripts is recorded in full by 35mm slide. The transparency archive includes master negatives and positive copies created from 1965 onwards. The film stock used includes Ektachrome for negatives and Kodak Low Fade for positive surrogates. There are also some 5"x4" transparencies available for the same content.

The state of the slides viewed varied considerably with earlier items showing distinct colour fade and colour tint to pink/red through ageing. These ageing items would not be suited to the digitisation process and would normally be discarded from the process and possibly new photographs taken where necessary. The remaining slides were in good overall condition, although some bowing of the transparency in the slide mount was evident throughout. This is only significant in that it may slightly affect the focal clarity of resultant scans and first copies of 35mm material would be ideal to help alleviate this potential quality issue.

The content of the 35mm slides is very brightly coloured and the photographs have a dense and high level of colour saturation. There are not many areas of deep black or bright white. There is some evidence of reflection from the gold used in some manuscripts. There is a tendancy to take a photograph of a single leaf of the manuscript rather than the opening. Overall, both the quality of the photographic media and the content is conducive to effective digitisation.

5.2 Recommendations for Digitisation

For both types of media, the preferred method for access for the majority of end-users is likely to be by individual manuscript leaf or opening. However, to aid finding the relevant item it would be advantageous to lay them out on screen in the order of opening from the original manuscript. There is also curatorial level work in identifying manuscript content and providing further finding aids.

The content of the materials lend themselves to imaging in greyscale or colour. There are no unusual problems of handling or transport to contend with because of the use of surrogates. This means the digitisation process can be suitably optimised.

All recommended specifications shown below could be completed within the technology, equipment and boundaries of the Oxford Digitisation Service model being contemplated by the Oxford Scoping Study Steering Group.

The requirements from the two types of media are rather different and so will be dealt with separately. The microfilm material is a source of record to the user who wants to study the text content only of the manuscript. The best information for study of manuscript colour content or detailed iconography is contained in the 35mm slides. The technology available to gain accurate electronic image information from the two media are different and so the resolutions shown will be different.

35mm Microfilm Reels: Suggested Basic Specification

Equipment: Microfilm scanner such as Sunrise or Mekel.

Resolution: 400 dpi (note this resolution measured in relation to original page size, not optical scan resolution)

Bit depth: 8-bit, 256 greyscales.

Output:Minimum compressed JPEG for microfilm.

An element that is unknown and will have to be ascertained for each microfilm is the background density. This is the numerical measurement of the contrast between the image and the non-image background of the microfilm. Density is important because it affects the legibility of the microfilm. Faded documents normally have a low density reading (i.e., .075) and high-contrast printed documents normally have high density readings (i.e., 1.2).

Colour 35mm Transparency Slides: Suggested Basic Specification

Equipment: Transparency scanner.

Resolution: 2700 dpi

Bit depth: 24-bit, RGB Colour.

Output:Uncompressed TIFF.

5.3 Potential Cost Factors

Handling, transport and insurance: There are no specific unusual handling, transportation or insurance difficulties associated with these surrogate media and so any cost factors become almost negligible.

Volume: Note that the volumes of this project (10,556 film frames and 3,308 35mm slides) are both insufficient to attract significant price discounts.

Microfilm issues: the fact that there will be multiple reduction ratios across the project and across individual films makes full automation of the process impossible. Set-up times and costs per film and manuscript will have to be factored in and could be as high as 10% of scan unit costs.

Unit Costs for Microfilm: £0.18 per opening (ex VAT) 10,556 x £0.18 = £1.900.08 (ex VAT)

This price does not account for any post-processing such as clean-up or cropping into individual leaf sides (i.e. 2 files) or other functions. These could add to the cost by up to £0.05 per image file (ex VAT).

35mm slide issues: The main issue with scanning 35mm slides at the specification above is the resultant file size (approximately 28-31 Mb). This makes for slower scanning times and transfer of files around systems and higher media costs. These costs and the cost associated with colour management to International Color Consortium standards are included in the scan unit price.

Unit Costs for 35mm slides: £2.50 per slide(ex VAT) 3,308 x £2.50 = £8,270 (ex VAT)

Surrogate Creation: None of the above figures account for the creation of surrogates designed for ease of access. The format and specification for these will be dependant upon whichever dissemination resource is chosen and thus outside the scope of this report. However, it is would be reasonable to estimate that no straight surrogate conversion from these types of media will cost more than either 15% of scan unit costs or a maximum of £0.40 per unit (ex VAT).

6 Bodleian Map Collections

The Bodleian map collections are large with approximately 1.2 million items from 1360 to the present day. Fortunately these may be divided into discrete sub-collections and the HEDS consultancy only deals with the following: · Portolan charts c.1500-1710

The Ordinance Survey maps will be reported separately whilst the atlases and Portolan charts may be grouped together for purposes of digitisation assessment.

One clear common theme throughout is that the demand for maps is heavy. This places a strain both on library and conservation resources that digitisation could help to relieve. The other commonality is that when photographs of maps are requested it is generally only for a portion of the map to be reproduced. This keeps the costs down for the requester, but means that the Bodleian Photographic Studio do not have many photographs of complete maps. It was also noted that the minimum turn round time for a photograph was 8 weeks.

All of the materials viewed would not be allowed to leave the Bodleian building for digitisation. All materials would require either special equipment or the creation of surrogates for scanning.

6.1 Ordnance Survey (Oxfordshire): Findings from Visit

The Oxfordshire Ordnance Survey maps are of large size (710 x 1050 mm) and to 25 inch scale. They are printed on single sides of thick cartridge type paper and are generally bound with the exception of the 1st edition. This binding leads to some loss of map at the gutter but all bindings will open to 1700 or more. The 1st edition of 1876 is in colour but all other editions are in black and white. The maps are in good condition, the paper is robust and there is no show-through or other marks. The content includes text at about 8-10 point size and some small cartographic icons. The colour items are stored in acetate sleeves and the colours are pastel shades and typical of the period.

There are about 550 maps in total. The Bodleian has approximately 250 commercial organisations registered for access to the OS map collections. The Bodleian has a complete geographical and historical coverage through the OS maps which is unique. Any access is currently limited by accessibility and conservation concerns.

6.2 Ordnance Survey (Oxfordshire): Recommendations for Digitisation

The OS maps could be approached in two ways. The most simple is to create an intermediary format, such as microfilm, and scan from that surrogate. The most direct would be to scan the original pages themselves.

The benefit of using microfilm is that it would be possible to create surrogates within the Bodleian building using the Bodleian Photographic Studio. The disadvantage is that generally any microfilm created in the past has only captured one side (left or right) of a bound map at one time. This means that to create a whole map would require "stitching" images together, which is expensive and technically tricky. Re-microfilming the whole map opening should be possible. Some research on the effects of the great reduction ratios required to fit the microfilm frame for digital image output standards would be needed.

The benefit of direct scanning is that this tends to lead to clearer scans, and the whole opening can be taken in one scan. The difficulty is that all of the maps would have to be done with overhead bound volume scanner type technology which limits the scan resolution possible due to the sheer size of the pages. The materials would not stand the physical strain of other forms of map scanning, such as large format flatbed scanning or roller fed scanning. Direct scanning also opens up the possibility of scanning colour.

The recommended bit depths are 1-bit for the black and white line art and 8-bit 256 colours for the colour content. The 8-bit colour would be sufficient for defining colours, especially if a special palette were created for the colour ranges expected in the maps.

It is recommended that Flashpix be considered as a suitable format for Web access to the maps. This format allows the end-user to zoom in to an overview image to view and print areas of interest. The Flashpix format is good for larger format originals as it provides low bandwidth delivery of user chosen multiple views.

Please note that the scanned image created from a map is not necessarily going to reproduce, either on screen or in printout, an exact scale representation of the map. Although much can be done to ensure a tight linear match of size and proportion to the original, it can not be claimed that the electronic version is an exactly scaleable copy of the original. This is because the digitisation process inevitably leads to the output digital file being represented through many layers of filters in terms of scanning, on screen display and print representation. Should the maps be made available electronically, then HEDS recommends that a suitable disclaimer be issued with the map files and prints.

All recommended specifications shown below could be completed within the technology, equipment and boundaries of the Oxford Digitisation Service model being contemplated by the Oxford Scoping Study Steering Group.

Suggested Basic Specification

Equipment: Overhead bound volume digital camera with cradle for bound materials and cold lighting. Or: Microfilm scanner.

Resolution: 300 dpi or for microfilm: 400 dpi (note this resolution measured in relation to original page size, not optical scan resolution)

Bit depth: 1-bit, Black and White and 8-bit, 256 colours.

Output:Uncompressed TIFF. Or: Minimum compressed JPEG for microfilm.

6.3 Ordnance Survey (Oxfordshire): Potential Cost Factors

Handling: The size and weight of the originals will be a factor in the handling costs for these materials. However, normal preservation level handling without other special treatments would be suitable and costs may be mitigated.

Transport and insurance: These costs would need to be carefully considered when sending the materials off-site for out-sourced servicing. This might be moot as the Bodleian would not consider allowing these materials out of the Library. These factors are thus not costed here.

Volume: Note that the volumes of this project (550) are likely to incur set-up fees being charged as well as a unit price. This could be up to £500 dependant on the technology used.

Unit Costs for Bound Volume Scanning: £1.40 per page side (ex VAT) 550 x £1.40 = £770 (ex VAT)

Unit Costs for Microfilm: £0.50 per opening (ex VAT) 550 x £0.50 = £275 (ex VAT)

Due to the microfilm being an unknown quality this unit cost must be viewed as speculative and indicative only.

Surrogate Creation: None of the above figures account for the creation of surrogates designed for ease of access. The format and specification for these will be dependant upon whichever dissemination resource is chosen and thus outside the scope of this report. However, it is would be reasonable to estimate that no straight surrogate conversion will cost more than either 15% of scan unit costs or a maximum of £0.40 per unit (ex VAT).

6.4 Atlases and Portolan Charts: Findings from Visit

The Bodleian holds a valuable collection of 140 rare bound atlases covering Britain, the world and Maritime maps. The atlases are in various sizes up to approximately 85cm x 60cm and there are various original forms of binding. The Portolan charts are 17 maps scribed onto animal hide/skin up to about A0 in size. Although the atlases vary greatly in their own right and the Portolan charts are even more different, they are uniform in respect of their digitisation viability. Neither collection is viable for direct scanning unless worked on within the Bodleian Library's own digital camera technology. The only way to create viable scans from the collections in an outsource service environment would be by photography and scanning from photographs as in the Select 50 Manuscripts project. It is this technique that HEDS will concentrate upon in this report.

The atlases show an immense variation in such a small collection. There are traditional stitched bindings and also hinged boards to which maps have been stuck. The Maps surveyed in detail (Map Res 34, 48, 84, 100 and 117) often showed a very fragile state of binding condition, and varying conditions, fragility and sizes for the map content. None of the items would be suitable for sending outside of the Bodleian for any type of digitisation process. Even within the Bodleian itself, HEDS would recommend that only selected items were chosen for digitisation either by direct scanning in the Bodleian manuscript scanner or by photographic surrogate. The selection should be based on condition and the ability to retain suitable preservation levels throughout the process as almost any such handling will incur some level of damage.

The Portolan charts are varied more in size and base material than any other aspect. The two items surveyed in detail - MSC2.7(23) and MSD1(185)[8] - would both need special photographic treatment. Both items showed cockling and dirt, whilst also very fine detail in the map art content. HEDS recommends that for photography the charts should be placed upon a larger temporary backing of some neutral coloured card. The charts are not a standard shape and this technique will help to ensure no strong colours/tones are next to the map content in a photograph to cause difficulties with colour management in the later digitisation process. Because of their size, value and fragility none of the items would be suitable for sending outside of the Bodleian for any type of digitisation process. Even within the Bodleian itself, HEDS would recommend that only selected items were chosen for digitisation from a photographic surrogate.

The Bodleian Photographic Studio have 3 size specifications for photographs from this type of material:

· 10" x 8" - not usually provided but possible.

All photographs would include a scale chart alongside the original item but no colour bar. The Bodleian Photographic Studio charge 60% of their listed price for photography to Oxford University Departments.

For digital reproduction of these maps 5" x 4" transparencies should be sufficient, but further research on 7" x 5" would be useful.

6.5 Atlases and Portolan Charts: Recommendations for Digitisation

Neither collection is viable for direct scanning unless worked on within the Bodleian Library's own digital camera technology. The only way to create viable scans from the collections in an outsource service environment would be by photography and scanning from photographs.

HEDS will assume 5" x 4" transparencies as this is the most used photographic surrogate likely to be available. The scanning of this size of transparency leads to a balancing of file output size against resolution. The originals maps and charts are themselves large and detailed and thus this would suggest that a higher resolution is required. Thus whilst 600 dpi from this size media would be suitable for quality printing it would not provide enough detail for research purposes. However, should the item be treated like a 35mm transparency then the file size becomes untenable in terms of production metrics and future use. Even 2400 dpi, 24-bit RGB will produce ~ 340 Mb uncompressed TIFF files. HEDS suggests that 1200 dpi, 24-bit RGB would be a balanced approach to these photographic surrogates, producing a file size of ~ 82 Mb in uncompressed TIFF. This resolution provides a good balance between file size and ensuring enough detail is available through the image resolution.

Colour 5" x4" Transparencies: Suggested Basic Specification

Equipment: Transparency scanner.

Resolution: 1200 dpi

Bit depth: 24-bit, RGB Colour.

Output:Uncompressed TIFF.

6.6 Atlases and Portolan Charts: Potential Cost Factors

Handling, transport and insurance: There are no specific unusual handling, transportation or insurance difficulties associated with surrogate media and so any cost factors become almost negligible.

File size: The main issue with scanning 5" x 4" transparencies at the specification above is the resultant file size (~ 82 Mb). This makes for slower scanning times and transfer of files around systems and higher media costs. These costs and the cost associated with colour management to International Color Consortium standards are included in the scan unit price.

Unit costs: £3.85 per 5" x 4" transparency (ex VAT) total volume unknown

Surrogate Creation: None of the above figures account for the creation of surrogates designed for ease of access. The format and specification for these will be dependant upon whichever dissemination resource is chosen and thus outside the scope of this report. However, it is would be reasonable to estimate that no straight surrogate conversion from this type of media will cost more than 15% of scan unit costs (ex VAT).

7 Summary of Recommendations

7.1

All recommended digitisation specifications given in this report could be completed within the technology, equipment and boundaries of the Oxford Digitisation Service model being contemplated by the Oxford Scoping Study Steering Group.

7.2 Mazarinades

· The recommended conversion specification is 8-bit, 256 greyscales at 400 dpi.

· Unit Costs for Bound Volume Scanning: £0.89 per page side (ex VAT) 51,000 x £0.89 = £45,390 (ex VAT).

· Unit Costs for Microfilm scanning: £0.20 per page side (ex VAT) 51,000 x £0.20 = £10,200 (ex VAT).

7.3 Statutes of the realm

· The preferred method for access for the majority of end-users is likely to be by individual statute.

· The materials viewed lend themselves to imaging. Any OCR done would be low accuracy and expensive to make accurate.

· The recommended conversion specification is 1-bit, Black and White at 300 dpi or (400 dpi for microfilm).

· Unit Costs for Bound Volume Scanning: £0.49 per page side (ex VAT) 12,000 x £0.49 = £5,880 (ex VAT)

· Unit Costs for Microfilm: £0.20 per page side (ex VAT) 12,000 x £0.20 = £2,400 (ex VAT)

7.4 Select 50 manuscripts

Microfilm

· Unit Costs for Microfilm: £0.18 per opening (ex VAT) 10,556 x £0.18 = £1.900.08 (ex VAT)

This price does not account for any post-processing such as clean-up or cropping into individual leaf sides (i.e. 2 files) or other functions. These could add to the cost by up to £0.05 per image file (ex VAT).

35mm Slides

· Unit Costs for 35mm slides: £2.50 per slide(ex VAT) 3,308 x £2.50 = £8,270 (ex VAT)

7.5 Bodleian Map Collections

Ordinance Survey Maps

· The recommended conversion specification is 1-bit, Black and White and 8-bit, 256 colours at 300 dpi or (400 dpi for microfilm).

· Unit Costs for Bound Volume Scanning: £1.40 per page side (ex VAT) 550 x £1.40 = £770 (ex VAT) plus up to £500 in set-up fees.

· Unit Costs for Microfilm: £0.50 per opening (ex VAT) 550 x £0.50 = £275 (ex VAT) plus up to £500 in set-up fees.

Atlases and Portolan Charts

· HEDS recommends that for photography, the charts are placed upon a larger temporary backing of some neutral coloured card to aid later digitisation processes.

· HEDS assume 5" x 4" transparencies for digitisation.

· HEDS suggests that 1200 dpi provides a good balance between file size and ensuring that enough detail is available.

· The recommended conversion specification is 24-bit, RGB Colour at 1200 dpi.

· Unit costs: £3.85 per 5" x 4" transparency (ex VAT) total volume unknown.


(1) http://www.lib.auburn.edu/madd/docs/unionlist/g37.html

(2) http://libweb.uoregon.edu/govdocs/micro/hist.htm

(3) http://sun3.lib.uci.edu/~slca/microform/s_resources.htm